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1 September 2002 Topical Application of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid and its Methylester, Hexylester and Octylester Derivatives: Considerations for Dosimetry in Mouse Skin Model
Asta Juzeniene, Petras Juzenas, Vladimir Iani, Johan Moan
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Ester derivatives of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-esters) have been proposed as alternative drugs for ALA in photodynamic therapy. After topical application of creams containing ALA, ALA methylester (ALA-Me), ALA hexylester (ALA-Hex) and ALA octylester (ALA-Oct) on mouse skin, typical fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) were recorded, exhibiting a similar spectral shape for all the drugs in the range of concentrations (0.5–20%) studied. The accumulation kinetics of PpIX followed nearly a similar profile for all the drug formulations. The fluorescence of PpIX peaked at around 6–12 h of continuous cream application. Nevertheless, some differences in pharmacokinetics were noticed. For ALA cream, the highest PpIX fluorescence was achieved using 20% of ALA in an ointment. Conversely, 10% of ALA-Me and ALA-Hex, but not of ALA-Oct, in the cream was more efficient (P < 0.05) than was 20%. The cream becomes rather fluid when 20% of any of these ALA-esters is used in ointment, whereas 10% and lower concentrations of ALA-esters do not significantly increase fluidity of the cream. The dependence of PpIX accumulation on the concentration of ALA and ALA-ester in the applied cream followed (P < 0.002) kinetics as described by a mathematical model based on the Michaelis–Menten equation for enzymatic processes. Under the present conditions, the PpIX amount in the skin increased by around 50% by the application of ALA-Me, ALA-Hex or ALA-Oct for 4–12 h as compared with ALA for the same period. Observations of the mice under exposure to blue light showed that after 8–24 h of continuous application of ALA, the whole mouse was fluorescent, whereas in the case of ALA-Me, ALA-Hex and ALA-Oct the fluorescence of PpIX was located only at the area of initial cream application. The amount of the active compound in the applied cream necessary to induce 90% of the maximal amount of PpIX was determined for normal mouse skin. Optimal PpIX fluorescence can be attained using around 5% ALA, 10% ALA-Me and 5% ALA-Hex creams during short application times (2–4 h). Topical application of ALA-Oct may not gain optimal PpIX accumulation for short applications (<5 h). For long application times (8–12 h), it seems that around 1% ALA, 4% ALA-Me, 6% ALA-Hex and 16% ALA-Oct can give optimal PpIX fluorescence. But for long application times and high concentrations, systemic effect of ALA applied topically on relatively large areas should be considered.

Asta Juzeniene, Petras Juzenas, Vladimir Iani, and Johan Moan "Topical Application of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid and its Methylester, Hexylester and Octylester Derivatives: Considerations for Dosimetry in Mouse Skin Model," Photochemistry and Photobiology 76(3), 329-334, (1 September 2002).<0329:TAOAAA>2.0.CO;2
Received: 24 January 2002; Accepted: 1 June 2002; Published: 1 September 2002

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