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1 March 2003 Singlet-oxygen Generation from A2E
Jeffrey R. Kanofsky, Paul D. Sima, Christoph Richter
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Singlet-oxygen generation was measured in solutions containing equilibrium mixtures of the retinal lipofuscins, 2-[2,6-dimethyl-8-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E,7E-octatetraenyl]-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-[4-methyl-6(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E-hexatrienyl]-pyridinium (A2E) and double bond isomer of A2E (iso-A2E), using steady-state irradiation and using cholesterol as a singlet-oxygen trap. The amount of singlet oxygen generated by equilibrium mixtures of A2E and iso-A2E was compared with that generated by tetraphenylporphine (TPP) under the same conditions. Studies were carried out in ethanol-d6, acetone-d6, 80% cyclohexane-d12–20% acetone-d6 (vol/vol) and hexafluorobenzene. Using 420 nm irradiation and assuming a singlet-oxygen quantum yield of 0.60 ± 0.12 for TPP, the singlet-oxygen quantum yields were 0.8 ± 0.3 × 10−3, 1.2 ± 0.4 × 10−3, 2 ± 1 × 10−3 and 4 ± 1 × 10−3, respectively. In acetone-d6, the quantum yields were smaller at longer wavelengths, with values of 0.3 ± 0.1 × 10−3 and 0.4 ± 0.2 × 10−3 at 461 and 493 nm, respectively. Singlet-oxygen generation was greatest in solvents with the lowest dielectric constants. In view of the relatively small quantum yields, the contribution of singlet-oxygen generation to the phototoxic properties of A2E and of iso-A2E will require further study.

Jeffrey R. Kanofsky, Paul D. Sima, and Christoph Richter "Singlet-oxygen Generation from A2E," Photochemistry and Photobiology 77(3), 235-242, (1 March 2003).<0235:SOGFA>2.0.CO;2
Received: 8 July 2002; Accepted: 1 December 2002; Published: 1 March 2003

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