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1 October 2003 Molecular Fluorescence Excitation–Emission Matrices Relevant to Tissue Spectroscopy
Ralph S. DaCosta, Helene Andersson, Brian C. Wilson
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In vivo and ex vivo studies of fluorescence from endogenous and exogenous molecules in tissues and cells are common for applications such as detection or characterization of early disease. A systematic determination of the excitation–emission matrices (EEM) of known and putative endogenous fluorophores and a number of exogenous fluorescent photodynamic therapy drugs has been performed in solution. The excitation wavelength range was 250–520 nm, with fluorescence emission spectra collected in the range 260–750 nm. In addition, EEM of intact normal and adenomatous human colon tissues are presented as an example of the relationship to the EEM of constituent fluorophores and illustrating the effects of tissue chromophore absorption. As a means to make this large quantity of spectral data generally available, an interactive database has been developed. This currently includes EEM and also absorption spectra of 35 different endogenous and exogenous fluorophores and chromophores and six photosensitizing agents. It is intended to maintain and extend this database in the public domain, accessible through the Photochemistry and Photobiology website (

Ralph S. DaCosta, Helene Andersson, and Brian C. Wilson "Molecular Fluorescence Excitation–Emission Matrices Relevant to Tissue Spectroscopy," Photochemistry and Photobiology 78(4), 384-392, (1 October 2003).<0384:MFEMRT>2.0.CO;2
Received: 20 January 2003; Accepted: 1 June 2003; Published: 1 October 2003

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