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In the course of research for a larger work on the history of molluscan studies in Japan, the author has translated a number of papers and notes from Japanese for the first time. Several are relevant in various ways to the molluscan collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and a number of them concern the Academy’s best-known malacologist, Henry A. Pilsbry. The paper presented here in translation is by Tokubei Kuroda. It appeared in the Venus almost fifty years ago, and sheds some new light on one of the most productive relationships of Pilsbry’s early career.
A paper by Tokubei Kuroda from 1953 is presented for the first time in English, with an introduction and annotation. It describes the main collecting expeditions commissioned by Yoichiro Hirase between 1900 and 1909. The localities and collection dates for the type material of the following species are given in more detail than in the original descriptions: Euhadra awaensis (Pilsbry, 1902); Trishoplita optima (Pilsbry, 1902); Mundiphaedusa kurozuensis (Pilsbry, 1902); Mundiphaedusa pachyspira (Pilsbry, 1902); Aegista (Coelorus) cavitectum (Pilsbry and Hirase, 1903); Karafthelix chishimana (Pilsbry and Hirase, 1904) [= K. blakeana (Newcomb, 1865)]; Mundiphaedusa hosoyaka (Pilsbry 1905); Luchuphaedusa azumai (Pilsbry, 1905); Luchuphaedusa ophidoon (Pilsbry, 1905).
BenimakiaHabe, 1958, is a distinctive genus of Fasciolariidae. Its type species, the Indo-West Pacific Recent B. rhodostoma (Dunker, 1860), is distinct from Turbinella fastigiumReeve, 1847, which is here also assigned to Benimakia and with which B. rhodostoma was often confused. We describe B. delicata n. sp. from Samoa and tentatively assign the Brazilian Latirus ogumPetuch, 1979 to Benimakia. At least two Indo-Pacific genera of gastropods besides Benimakia (Caducifer and Quimalea) also contain isolated Brazilian species. How and when these genera reached Brazil, and why many Indo-Pacific genera that have invaded the eastern Pacific do not occur in Brazil, remain unanswered questions.
Dentifusus deynzeri, a new genus and species from the Philippines, is characterized by a cord-generated labral tooth, beaded lirae on the inner side of the outer lip, and a smooth columella. Despite the smooth columella, we assign this taxon to the Latirus group of genera in Fasciolariidae. The tooth evolved independently of that in other fasciolariid genera.
Cittarium pica (Linnaeus, 1758) is the third most important marine invertebrate species eaten by man in the West Indies. Information on it is widely scattered and is newly reviewed here, with original data, questions, and conclusions added. The animal has a relatively large shell and is easily collected, living intertidally and shallow subtidally on rocky shores. Its stocks are depleted at many places, large animals having been selectively removed by fishermen and others. There is only one living species of Cittarium, occurring in Bermuda, southern Florida, and in the greater West Indies. Its closest living relatives are all non-American, the only congener being the recently discovered C. maestratiiLozouet (2002) from the Oligocene of France. Thus the geographical and stratigraphic origins of the genus are still somewhat problematic. In Bermuda and southern Florida, the occurrence of C. pica alive is naturally sporadic. Sometimes sea surface temperatures are too low there for this tropical animal. The following topics are also reviewed: systematics, vernacular names, nomenclature, classification, anatomy and functional morphology, radulae, shell description, internal nacre, sizes and giants; shell strength, dextral coiling, and hermit crab occupancy; ecology and habitats, symbionts (unattached and attached), foods and feeding, reproduction, larval development and life history and movements, shell growth rates and longevity, predators, and escape responses; Pleistocene occurrences and historical extinctions in Bermuda and Florida; human introductions; also, human uses, including cookery, and possible tropical fish poisoning or ciguatera (caused by a toxic dinoflagellate).
The most important new findings are: 1) That a shallowly shell-penetrating blue-green alga (Cyanophyta), probably Plectonema terebrans Bornet and Flahault, affecting only the white areas in the external color pattern (reported by Helen A. Randall, 1964), weakens these shell areas only and indirectly brings about differential erosion: the black, often zigzag stripes or marks on old shells become slightly higher in relief than the white areas. 2) Some aspects of multispiral operculum growth, visible externally only, are inferred from its morphology, but major questions remain. With growth, the operculum rotates as very many times as there are coils, and the growing edge is always in the same relative position, posterior, in the ever enlarging shell aperture. The operculum is attached on the inside by muscles arising postero-dorsally in the foot. The opercular muscle attachment and scar move, as they must, while the operculum grows and rotates very many times. How? 3) Occasionally, shells grow extra large in a very shallow, dead coral fringing reef habitat, not “deep”. The largest shell reliably reported is 137 mm wide and is from the Netherlands Antilles. Two from the Bahamas, the first with habitat data, are 132 and 126 mm wide. 4) Clouds of broadcast sperm were once mistaken for an “opaque liquid” causing “alarm” in nearby cittariums.
None of these topics is addressed fully or at all by Fretter and Graham (1994) or Hickman (1998). Cittarium is shown to be primitive and in the mainstream of trochid evolution, having few if any noteworthy or remarkable biological specializations such as occur in some other trochids.
Three new subgenera and five new species of fossil crane flies are described from Baltic amber (Eocene). Their affinities with other recent and fossil subgenera of Dactylolabis limoniids are discussed. The systematic position of Dactylolabis vetustaAlexander, 1931 is corrected. A key for all Baltic amber species of Dactylolabis is given.
We compiled information on freshwater Nematomorpha (horsehair worms) from North America including new records of more than 100 specimens from 66 new locations and the description of two new species. From the 30 species names that have been used for Nearctic nematomorphs, 15 are regarded as valid species. The descriptions of most of these species were supplemented with new material and documented by light and scanning electron microscopy. Three species, Gordius agassizi, Gordius fasciatus and Gordius hawaiiensis are synonymized with Gordius robustus. Gordius leidyi is not a valid species, but its assignment is uncertain. Gordius tenuis is not a nematomorph, but a mermithid nematode. Parachordodes densareolatus is a questionable species and might belong to Gordionus. New combinations are given for three species. The two new species described here raise the number of gordiids known from the Nearctic region to 17. A taxonomic key and a geographic list of species distributions are given in appendices.
Species novae:Gordionus sinepilosus (British Columbia, Canada), Pseudochordodes texanus (Texas, U.S.A.).
A phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships within the callichthyid subfamily Corydoradinae is proposed based on 83 characters. The monophyly of the subfamily is well supported, as are those of two included genera, Aspidoras and Brochis. However, the monophyly of Corydoras, as traditionally defined, is not corroborated, with some of currently included species being more closely related to Aspidoras or Brochis than to nominal congeners. These conclusions contrast with a previous hypothesis, which considered Brochis and Corydoras as forming a monophyletic assemblage, with Aspidoras as its sister-group. A clade composed of Aspidoras and the species currently assigned to Corydoras, C. barbatus, C. macropterus, C. prionotus and Corydoras sp. A, is herein recognized based on the following characters: possession of anterior portion of frontal bone long, hypobranchial 2 well ossified, free margin of opercle angulated, epiphyseal branch of the supraorbital canal long, and ossified portion of pectoral spine reduced. The remaining corydoradines are grouped in a monophyletic assemblage with complex vertebra compact, posterior expansion of ceratobranchial 3 notched, presence of triangular dorsal lamina on anguloarticular, and medial expansion of coracoid exposed. A new classification is proposed to accommodate the monophyletic groups defined in the present study. Discussions about subgroups within each major clade are provided.
A new taxon, Fragilaria pennsylvanica, is described based on light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This diatom is mainly characterized by the fusiform valve outline, wide central sternum, and short striae composed of small round areolae. The new taxon was found in four small shallow streams from Pennsylvania, U.S.A., and it may be endemic to this region. The sites where the taxon was found are characterized by slightly acidic to circumneutral pH, but highest relative abundance was found in higher water temperature suggesting that the growth of the taxon might be partly related to this latter factor. The taxonomic position of F. pennsylvanica is discussed in the light of recent revisions of the genera Fragilaria, Synedra, and Ulnaria. Morphological and ecological differences of the new taxon with closely related taxa are discussed.
The personal herbarium of the late-20th century botanist Benjamin C. Stone (1933–1994) was deposited with the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia in the late 1980’s and has long been recognized for the important material collected by him and others in Madagascar, Malaysia, New Caledonia, and other neotropical areas in the vicinity of southeast Asia. Of particular interest is the large collection of Pandanus that represents Stone’s work for over two decades. The contents and curation of the Stone herbarium are discussed and an index to the type specimens of Pandanaceae present at PH is provided.
Recent work has led to the discovery that Usnea rigida (Acharius) Motyka has been mis-interpreted by many authors and that the nomenclatural implications of its re-interpretation affect the use of some other names. The following errors are corrected: U. rigida (Acharius) Motyka should be cited as U. rigida Motyka and is not synonymous with U. florida var. rigida Acharius; U. florida var. rigida is lectotypified and placed in synonymy with U. florida (L.) Wigg.; U. rigida Vainio has priority over U. rigida Motyka; U. welwitschiana Motyka is regarded as a superfluous name. U. quasirigida, nom. nov., is introduced for U. rigida Motyka (non U. rigida Vainio).
Continued work on the angulose species of the genus Usnea has led to the discovery that the names Usnea fallax Motyka and U. paradoxa (Zahlbruckner) Motyka have been confused and incorrectly typified. Thus, here the following changes are implied: Usnea angulata Acharius var. paradoxa Zahlbruckner is lectotypified and placed in synonymy with U. fallax Motyka; the authorship of U. paradoxa (Zahlbruckner) Motyka should be cited as U. paradoxa Motyka; and U. paradoxa Motyka is lectotypified. The corrected use of both names is presented and the type material is illustrated.