Meganthias carpenteri is described from two specimens collected off Nigeria. An additional specimen of Meganthias, caught in the eastern South Atlantic over Vema Seamount, is considered, as is M. natalensis, the type species of the genus. The three Atlantic specimens of Meganthias are the first of the genus recorded from that ocean. Previously described species of Meganthias are M. natalensis (western Indian Ocean) and M. kingyo (Ryukyu Islands, western Pacific). Meganthias carpenteri differs from them in the morphology of the lips and maxilla.
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