The taxonomic status of Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill) is problematic. Difficulties in comparison of populations are exacerbated by the lack of type material. Here we designate a neotype from Connetquot River, Long Island, New York. We provide genetic and morphological data for the neotype, conspecifics, and other populations (Swan Creek, Nissequogue Creek) from Long Island, New York. We demonstrate, using molecular markers, that the population from Connetquot River most likely has not been influenced by the major broodstock strains utilized in the Northeast for supplemental and restorative stocking programs. We distinguish the above populations morphologically from lower interior basin populations, represented by fishes from the Pigeon-French Broad drainage, North Carolina and Tennessee. Finally, we position populations from Long Island, New York, within six distinct lineages of S. fontinalis.