The genera comprising the Diglyphosematini Belizin (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) are redescribed, all of the valid species are cataloged, and a key to all Diglyphosematini genera is provided. To determine the monophyly of each of the included genera, a phylogenetic analysis of 1060 ribosomal characters, 392 mitochondrial characters, and 169 morphological/biological characters was conducted for 18 ingroup taxa in both a parsimony and Bayesian framework. Based on the results presented here and elsewhere, the Diglyphosematini are comprised of the following genera: Banacuniculus Buffington, Diglyphosema Förster, Disorygma Förster, Ealata Quinlan, Ganaspidium Weld, Gronotoma Förster, Microstilba Förster, Nordlanderia Quinlan, Paradiglyphosema Lin, and Tobiasiana Kovalev. Disorygma was not recovered as monophyletic; Sinatra Buffington, new genus, also included in Diglyphosematini, is described to accommodate S. pacifica (Yoshimoto). Nordlanderia, revised status, is removed from synonymy with Tobiasiana. Characters and character states applicable specifically to Diglyphosematini are defined and illustrated. Characters supporting the monophyly of each genus are discussed. All species of Diglyphosematini whose biology has been studied in depth are parasitoids of leafmining and stem-mining Agromyzidae (Diptera), or rarely, of fruit infesting Tephritidae (Diptera). New host records for Diglyphosema and Ealata, as well distributions and known type repositories for each species of Diglyphosematini, are reported.