Using suction light traps biting midges of the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected between 2004 and 2006 on nine cattle and/or sheep farms distributed throughout the length of the island of Sardinia (Italy). A total of 42,664 adult midges (36,655 females, 6,009 males) were collected during 287 trapping nights; 41 species of Culicoides were identified, of which 16 are new records for Sardinia. Eight of these, i.e., Culicoides derisor Callot and Kremer, Culicoides duddingstoni Kettle and Lawson, Culicoides kingi Austen, Culicoides paradisionensis Boorman, Culicoides santonicus Callot, Kremer, Rault and Bach, Culicoides subfagineus Delécolle and Ortega, Culicoides submaritimus Dzhafarov, and Culicoides truncorum Edwards, are also new to the biting midge fauna of Italy. The six most-abundant species captured were Culicoides newsteadi Austen (21.7%), Culicoides univitattus Vimmer (12.6%), Culicoides circumscriptus Kieffer (12.5%), Culicoides paolae Boorman (12.0%), Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle (10.6%) and Culicoides imicola Kieffer (10.1%); the last-mentioned species is the principal vector for bluetongue virus (BTV) affecting sheep in the Mediterranean basin. Bar charts depicting the seasonality at three collecting sites of six proven or potential vectors for BTV, and belonging mostly to the obsoletus and pulicaris species complexes, are presented and discussed. Finally, an updated checklist is provided for the 45 species of Culicoides now known to occur on Sardinia and includes corrections on misidentifications made in an earlier checklist.
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