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1 October 2013 Host Plants (Cyperaceae) of Ischnodemus rufipes Van Duzee (Hemiptera: Blissidae): Cyperus erythrorhizos in Unpredictable Wetland Communities, Scirpus cyperinus in More Permanent Wetlands
A. G. Wheeler Jr.
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Abstract

Previous information on host plants of the blissid Ischnodemus rufipes Van Duzee has been limited to single observations in Florida on each of two sedges (Cyperaceae): Cyperus erythrorhizos and C. odoratus. In the piedmont of South Carolina, during extreme drought conditions in August 2008, I. rufipes was found on redroot flatsedge, C. erythrorhizos, which had colonized mudflats on exposed shorelines of Hartwell Lake in Clemson. Surveys to determine the host-plant range of I. rufipes were conducted from 2008 to 2012 in the Blue Ridge ecoregion of Georgia and North Carolina and coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia and South Carolina. The blissid exploits the short (floriferous) growth form of C. erythrorhizos, an annual sedge of unpredictable availability in ephemeral mudflats, while maintaining populations mainly on a perennial sedge, Scirpus cyperinus, in more persistent habitats. The blissid also develops on the generally taller C. erythrorhizos plants in more permanent wetlands. Only one generation of I. rufipes might be possible on annual sedges of inconstant occurrence, but the blissid is bivoltine on woolly sedge (woolgrass), S. cyperinus. Adults overwintered not only on host sedges (mainly S. cyperinus), but also on nonhost sedges and other graminoids, beginning as early as September. A mating pair was observed on S. cyperinus in mid-May, early instars in late May, and first-generation adults by mid-July. Early instars of a second generation (and a mating pair) were observed in mid-August. The late instars found sparingly on woolly sedge in late fall and early winter probably attain adulthood or die during winter; only adults were observed after January. New state records for I. rufipes are Arkansas, Oklahoma, and South Carolina.

A. G. Wheeler Jr. "Host Plants (Cyperaceae) of Ischnodemus rufipes Van Duzee (Hemiptera: Blissidae): Cyperus erythrorhizos in Unpredictable Wetland Communities, Scirpus cyperinus in More Permanent Wetlands," Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 115(4), 295-310, (1 October 2013). https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797.115.4.295
Published: 1 October 2013
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KEYWORDS
distribution
drought
Lygaeoidea
Mudflats
natural drawdowns
Neopamera albocincta
new records
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