Coleman, C. N., Blakely, W. F., Fike, J. R., MacVittie, T. J., Metting, N. F., Mitchell, J. B., Moulder, J. E., Preston, R. J., Seed, T. M., Stone, H. B., Tofilon, P. J. and Wong, R. S. L. Molecular and Cellular Biology of Moderate-Dose (1–10 Gy) Radiation and Potential Mechanisms of Radiation Protection: Report of a Workshop at Bethesda, Maryland, December 17–18, 2001. Radiat. Res. 159, 812–834 (2003).
Exposures to doses of radiation of 1–10 Gy, defined in this workshop as moderate-dose radiation, may occur during the course of radiation therapy or as the result of radiation accidents or nuclear/radiological terrorism alone or in conjunction with bioterrorism. The resulting radiation injuries would be due to a series of molecular, cellular, tissue and whole-animal processes. To address the status of research on these issues, a broad-based workshop was convened. The specific recommendations were: (1) Research: Identify the key molecular, cellular and tissue pathways that lead from the initial molecular lesions to immediate and delayed injury. The latter is a chronic progressive process for which postexposure treatment may be possible. (2) Technology: Develop high-throughput technology for studying gene, protein and other biochemical expression after radiation exposure, and cytogenetic markers of radiation exposure employing rapid and accurate techniques for analyzing multiple samples. (3) Treatment strategies: Identify additional biological targets and develop effective treatments for radiation injury. (4) Ensuring sufficient expertise: Recruit and train investigators from such fields as radiation biology, cancer biology, molecular biology, cellular biology and wound healing, and encourage collaboration on interdisciplinary research on the mechanisms and treatment of radiation injury. Communicate knowledge of the effects of radiation exposure to the general public and to investigators, policy makers and agencies involved in response to nuclear accidents/events and protection/treatment of the general public.