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1 September 2005 DNA Damage Responses at Low Radiation Doses
S. C. Short, S. Bourne, C. Martindale, M. Woodcock, S. P. Jackson
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Short, S. C., Bourne, S., Martindale, C., Woodcock, M. and Jackson, S. P. DNA Damage Responses at Low Radiation Doses. Radiat. Res. 164, 292–302 (2005).

Increased cell killing after exposure to low acute doses of X rays (0–0.5 Gy) has been demonstrated in cells of a number of human tumor cell lines. The mechanisms underlying this effect have been assumed to be related to a threshold dose above which DNA repair efficiency or fidelity increases. We have used cells of two radioresistant human tumor cell lines, one that shows increased sensitivity to low radiation doses (T98G) and one that does not (U373), to investigate the DNA damage response at low doses in detail and to establish whether there is a discontinuous dose response or threshold in activation of any important mediators of this response. In the two cell lines studied, we found a sensitive, linear dose response in early signaling and transduction pathways between doses of 0.1 and 2 Gy with no evidence of a threshold dose. We demonstrate that ATM-dependent signaling events to downstream targets including TP53, CHK1 and CHK2 occur after doses as low as 0.2 Gy and that these events promote an effective damage response. Using chemical inhibition of specific DNA repair enzymes, we show that inhibition of DNA-PK-dependent end joining has relatively little effect at low (<1 Gy) doses in hyper-radiosensitive cells and that at these doses the influence of RAD51-mediated repair events may increase, based on high levels of RAD51/BRCA2 repair foci. These data do not support a threshold model for activation of DNA repair in hyper-radiosensitive cells but do suggest that the balance of repair enzyme activity may change at low doses.

S. C. Short, S. Bourne, C. Martindale, M. Woodcock, and S. P. Jackson "DNA Damage Responses at Low Radiation Doses," Radiation Research 164(3), 292-302, (1 September 2005).
Received: 21 July 2004; Accepted: 1 February 2005; Published: 1 September 2005
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