Likhtarev, I., Bouville, A., Kovgan, L., Luckyanov, N., Voillequé, P. and Chepurny, M. Questionnaire- and Measurement-Based Individual Thyroid Doses in Ukraine Resulting from the Chornobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident. Radiat. Res. 166, 271–286 (2006).
The U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the Ministries of Health of Belarus and of Ukraine, is involved in epidemiological studies of thyroid diseases presumably related to the Chornobyl accident, which occurred in Ukraine on 26 April 1986. Within the framework of these studies, individual thyroid absorbed doses, as well as uncertainties, have been estimated for all members of the cohorts (13,215 Ukrainians and 11,918 Belarusians), who were selected from the large group of children aged 0 to 18 whose thyroids were monitored for γ radiation within a few weeks after the accident. Information on the residence history and dietary habits of each cohort member was obtained during personal interviews. The methodology used to estimate the thyroid absorbed doses resulting from intakes of 131I by the Ukrainian cohort subjects is described. The model of thyroid dose estimation is run in two modes: deterministic and stochastic. In the stochastic mode, the model is run 1,000 times for each subject using a Monte Carlo procedure. The geometric means of the individual thyroid absorbed doses obtained in the stochastic mode range from 0.0006 to 42 Gy. The arithmetic and geometric means of these individual thyroid absorbed doses over the entire cohort are 0.68 and 0.23 Gy, respectively. On average, the individual thyroid dose estimates obtained in the deterministic mode are about the same as the geometric mean doses obtained in the stochastic mode, while the arithmetic mean thyroid absorbed doses obtained in the stochastic mode are about 20% higher than those obtained in the deterministic mode. The distributions of the 1000 values of the individual thyroid absorbed dose estimates are found to be approximately lognormal, with geometric standard deviations ranging from 1.6 to 5.0 for most cohort subjects. For the time being, only the thyroid doses resulting from intakes of 131I have been estimated for all subjects. Future work will include the estimation of the contributions to the thyroid doses resulting from external irradiation and from intakes of short-lived (133I and 132Te) and long-lived (134Cs and 137Cs) radionuclides, as well as efforts to reduce the uncertainties.