Heikkinen, P., Ernst, H., Huuskonen, H., Komulainen, H., Kumlin, T., Mäki-Paakkanen, J., Puranen, L. and Juutilainen, J. No Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation on 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone-Induced Tumorigenesis in Female Wistar Rats. Radiat. Res. 166, 397–408 (2006).
This study evaluated possible effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on tumorigenesis induced by the mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) given in drinking water. Female Wistar rats aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiments were randomly divided into four groups of 72 animals: a cage-control group and three MX-exposed groups (a daily average dose of 1.7 mg MX/kg body weight for 104 weeks), of which two were exposed to 900 MHz pulsed RF radiation and the third served as a sham-RF-radiation group. The RF-radiation groups were exposed 2 h per day, 5 days per week for 104 weeks at nominal whole-body average SARs of 0.3 W/kg and 0.9 W/kg. Complete histopathology was performed on the rats of the three MX-exposed groups. The tumor types and incidences observed in the MX-exposed animals were similar to those reported earlier in MX-exposed female Wistar rats. RF radiation did not statistically significantly affect mortality or organ-specific incidence of any tumor type. The only statistically significant difference was an increase in the combined frequency of vascular tumors of the mesenteric lymph nodes in the high-RF-radiation group compared to the sham-RF-radiation group. However, additional histopathological analysis of the cage-control animals suggested that this difference was due to unusually low frequency of this type of tumor in the sham-RF-radiation group rather than a high frequency in the high-RF-radiation group. With respect to non-neoplastic findings, statistically significant differences between the RF-radiation groups and the sham-RF-radiation group were observed only for single findings in the lacrimal glands, lungs, liver and skin. Such changes are commonly seen in aged rats and were considered to be unrelated to RF radiation. The results of the present study do not support co-carcinogenic effects of low-level long-term RF-radiation exposure in rats.