Otsuka, K., Koana, T., Tomita, M., Ogata, H. and Tauchi, H. Rapid Myeloid Recovery as a Possible Mechanism of Whole-Body Radioadaptive Response. Radiat. Res. 170, 307– 315 (2008).
We investigated the mechanism underlying the radioadaptive response that rescues mice from hematopoietic failure. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with low-dose acute X rays (0.5 Gy) for priming 2 weeks prior to a high-dose (6 Gy) challenge irradiation. Bone marrow cells, erythrocytes and platelets in low-dose-preirradiated mice showed earlier recovery after the challenge irradiation than those in mice subjected only to the challenge irradiation. This suggests that hematopoiesis is enhanced after a challenge irradiation in preirradiated mice. The rapid recovery of bone marrow cells after the challenge irradiation was consistent with the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors expressing the cell surface markers Lin−, Sca-1− and c-Kit in low-dose-preirradiated mice. A subpopulation of myeloid (Mac-1 /Gr-1 ) cells, which were descendants of Lin−, Sca-1− and c-Kit cells, rapidly recovered in the bone marrow of low-dose-preirradiated mice, whereas the number of B-lymphoid (CD19 /B220 ) cells did not show a statistically significant increase. Plasma cytokine profiles were analyzed using antibody arrays, and results indicated that the concentrations of several growth factors for myelopoiesis after the challenge irradiation were considerably increased by low-dose preirradiation. The rapid recovery of erythrocytes and platelets but not leukocytes was observed in the peripheral blood of preirradiated mice, suggesting that low-dose preirradiation triggered the differentiation to myelopoiesis. Thus the adaptive response induced by low-dose preirradiation in terms of the recovery kinetics of the number of hematopoietic cells may be due to the rapid recovery of the number of myeloid cells after high-dose irradiation.