For the past 5 years, a radio-chemotherapy approach based on the photoactivation of platinum atoms (PAT-Plat) consisting of treating tumors with platinated compounds and irradiating them above the platinum K edge (78.4 keV) has been developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France). Compared to other preclinical modalities, PAT-Plat provides the highest survivals of rats bearing the rodent F98 glioma. However, further investigations are required to optimize its efficiency and to allow its clinical application. Here we examined in vitro and in vivo whether monochromatic X rays are more efficient than high-energy photons in producing the PAT-Plat effect by measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and survival of glioma-bearing rats and whether an increase in the platinum concentration in the tumor results in increased rat survival. DSBs were assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with different DNA fragment migration programs and with γ-H2AX immunofluorescence. In vivo, F98 glioma cells were injected intracerebrally, treated with a single intracranial injection of cisplatin or carboplatin 13 days after tumor implantation, and irradiated the day after with 78.8 keV X rays or 6 MV photons. Our results indicate that 78.8 keV X rays are more efficient than high-energy photons at producing the PAT-Plat effect. At low concentrations, cisplatin is more efficient than carboplatin; this is likely due to more efficient DNA binding and DSB repair inhibition. High concentrations of carboplatin inside tumors do not necessarily lead to protracted survival of rats. The therapeutic benefit of anti-glioma synchrotron strategies appears to be correlated with the percentage of unrepaired DSBs but not with the number of DSBs induced.
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