Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches.
Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content.
Contact email@example.com with any questions.
Mutations within the tumor suppressor BRCA1 cause the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. The BRCA1 protein is an important regulator of DNA double-strand break repair, and BRCA1-deficient cells are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. Furthermore, BRCA1 function may contribute to enforcement of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint. E3-ubiquitin ligase activity is the only known enzymatic activity of BRCA1, which is mediated by the N-terminal RING finger domain. The C-terminal BRCT repeat domain, which mediates protein-protein interactions, is the only other identified structural domain. By investigating cancer-linked mutations within each domain, we demonstrate that truncation of the BRCT domain greatly impairs the stability and nuclear localization of BRCA1 protein. A missense mutation within the RING domain does not affect these biochemical properties. However, both mutant forms of BRCA1 fail to colocalize in nuclear foci with the known BRCA1-interacting proteins BARD1 and BACH1, which are important for DNA repair. This failure occurs despite the continued ability of the RING mutant protein to interact with BACH1 and the ability of the BRCT mutant to interact with BARD1. Furthermore, neither mutant form of BRCA1 is recruited into DNA damage-associated foci marked by γ-H2AX. Therefore, our data suggest that both the RING and BRCT domains of BRCA1 are required for an early step in the function of BRCA1 during DNA repair: recruitment to the sites of DNA damage.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a known radiation-induced tumor. Rearrangements in human chromosome 10 and in particular intrachromosomal exchanges are often associated with PTC formation. In this study we measured intrachromosomal exchanges in human thyroid follicular cells exposed to sparsely or densely ionizing radiation. Assuming that inversions in chromosome 10 are a biomarker of PTC risk, we estimated the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of heavy ions using a molecular marker in vitro. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations was performed with the mBAND technique, which allows detection of both inter- and intrachromosomal exchanges. Our results do not show any significant increase in the yield of intrachanges in samples exposed to heavy ions compared to X rays. Within the constraints imposed by the experimental model we used, we conclude that heavy ions would not necessarily be more effective than X rays in the induction of thyroid cancer.
Interphase chromosomes are divided into discrete domains, with limited overlapping and movement. We explored the role of nuclear topology in the formation of chromosome aberrations by irradiating normal human fibroblasts with high-energy heavy ions from different directions. Cells with elliptical nuclei were grown in an aligned manner onto micrometer grooved culturing substrates to have a predetermined orientation with respect to the accelerated iron ions. Particles were directed either perpendicular to the cell layer or along the major or minor axis of the nucleus. Analysis of chromosome aberrations by mFISH showed that, at the same radiation dose, the yield of chromosomal damage and its complexity are largely modified by the irradiation geometry. The results demonstrate that the architecture of the cell nucleus determines the formation of chromosomal rearrangements.
Radiation-induced carcinogenesis is a major concern both for astronauts on long-term space missions and for cancer patients being treated with therapeutic radiation. Exposure to radiation induces oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which are critical initiators and promoters of carcinogenesis. Many studies have demonstrated that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antioxidants can reduce the risk of radiation-induced cancer. In this study, we found that a synthetic triterpenoid, CDDO-Me (bardoxolone methyl), was able to protect human colon epithelial cells (HCECs) against radiation-induced transformation. HCECs that were immortalized by ectopic expression of hTERT and cdk4 and exhibit trisomy for chromosome 7 (a non-random chromosome change that occurs in 37% of premalignant colon adenomas) can be transformed experimentally with one combined exposure to 2 Gy of protons at 1 GeV/nucleon followed 24 h later by 50 cGy of 56Fe ions at 1 GeV/nucleon. Transformed cells showed an increase in proliferation rate and in both anchorage-dependent and independent colony formation ability. A spectrum of chromosome aberrations was observed in transformed cells, with 40% showing loss of 17p (e.g. loss of one copy of p53). Pretreatment of cells with pharmacological doses of CDDO-Me, which has been shown to induce antioxidative as well as anti-inflammatory responses, prevented the heavy-ion-induced increase in proliferation rate and anchorage-dependent and independent colony formation efficiencies. Taken together, these results demonstrate that experimentally immortalized human colon epithelial cells with a non-random chromosome 7 trisomy are valuable premalignant cellular reagents that can be used to study radiation-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. The utility of premalignant HCECs to test novel compounds such as CDDO-Me that can be used to protect against radiation-induced neoplastic transformation is also demonstrated.
Radiation-induced bystander effects are the biological responses exhibited by cells adjacent to cells that have been traversed by charged particles. Using a synchrotron X-ray microbeam irradiation system, we irradiated five cells in two different ways: by targeting the nuclei with 10 µm × 10-µm 5.35 keV X-ray beams and by irradiating the whole cells with 50 µm × 50-µm 5.35 keV X-ray beams. Then we measured the clonogenic survival of the bystander cells. When only the nuclei were irradiated, a parabolic enhancement of bystander cell death was observed in a dose-dependent manner in the low-dose region around 1 Gy. In contrast, the surviving fraction of bystander cells decreased monotonically when whole cells were irradiated. Addition of carboxy-PTIO, a specific scavenger of nitric oxide (NO), suppressed bystander cell death in both cases. These results indicate that NO is a mediator in the induction of the parabolic and monotonic types of bystander cell death. Moreover, from the spatial analysis, we found that the parabolic type of bystander cell death was induced primarily within 1 mm of irradiated cells. Our findings demonstrate that the induction of bystander cell death depends on the sites of energy deposition in irradiated cells.
We reported previously that low-dose X irradiation of DNA repair-proficient immature sperm of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster at a low dose rate (50 mGy/min) resulted in a mutation frequency that was lower than that in the sham-irradiated group. Therefore, a U-shaped dose–response relationship was suggested. Here we show that the dose–response curve is actually U-shaped by carrying out a large-scale sex-linked recessive lethal assay using Drosophila. No reduction of the mutation frequency was observed in a strain mutant for the nucleotide excision repair gene mei-9a (Drosophila homologue of human XPF). Introduction of a chromosome fragment containing mei-9 into the mei-9a mutant strain restored the reduction of the mutation frequency in the low-dose-irradiated group. These results showed that DNA repair was responsible for the U-shaped dose–response relationship in Drosophila.
The effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was studied in radiation-induced apoptosis in rat jejunal crypt cells. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were administered 4 mg/kg bFGF intraperitoneally 25 h before receiving 8 Gy whole-body X rays. The jejunum was removed for analysis from time 0 to 120 h after irradiation. Villus length in control rats declined steadily until 72 h, while in bFGF-treated rats the villi were longer than in the controls until 48 h. Crypt lengths were similar to villi. bFGF treatment increased Ki-67-positive cells in the jejunal crypt at 0, 24 and 48 h. The treatment with bFGF reduced the number of apoptotic cells per jejunal crypt to 23% and 10% of the control values at 3 and 6 h, respectively, and increased numbers of mitotic cells significantly at 48 and 72 h. bFGF decreased the levels of TP53, CDKN1A, Puma and Cleaved caspase 3 at 3 h as detected by Western blot analyses. Our results suggest that bFGF protected against acute radiation-induced injury by suppressing the crypt apoptotic cells including the stem cells and promoted crypt cell proliferation. The inhibition of apoptosis thus might be related to suppression of the TP53 pathway.
The purpose of this study was to develop a rat orthotopic lung tumor model with a solitary intrapulmonary nodule to study the effects of high-dose radiation. A549-Luc non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were implanted into nude rats in the intercostal space between ribs 5 and 6 of the right lung. Bioluminescence and microcomputed tomography (CT) imaging were performed after implantation to confirm the presence of a solitary tumor and to monitor tumor growth. A device using image guidance for localization was developed to facilitate high-precision irradiation in small animals. A pilot irradiation study was performed, and response was assessed by bioluminescence imaging and immunohistochemistry. Radiation response was confirmed through serial bioluminescence imaging, and the strength of the bioluminescence signal was observed to be inversely proportional to dose. Response was also observed by the monoclonal antibody bavituximab, which binds to exposed lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) on tumor vessels. The ability to (1) reproducibly generate solitary tumor nodules in the rat lung, (2) identify and monitor tumor growth by bioluminescence imaging and CT imaging, (3) accurately target these tumors using high doses of radiation, and (4) demonstrate and quantify radiation response using bioluminescence imaging provides significant opportunity to probe the biological mechanisms of high-dose irradiation in preclinical settings.
While radiation increases the risk of lung cancer among members of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors, there are still important questions about the nature of its interaction with smoking, the predominant cause of lung cancer. Among 105,404 LSS subjects, 1,803 primary lung cancer incident cases were identified for the period 1958–1999. Individual smoking history information and the latest radiation dose estimates were used to investigate the joint effects of radiation and smoking on lung cancer rates using Poisson grouped survival regression methods. Relative to never-smokers, lung cancer risks increased with the amount and duration of smoking and decreased with time since quitting smoking at any level of radiation exposure. Models assuming generalized interactions of smoking and radiation fit markedly better than simple additive or multiplicative interaction models. The joint effect appeared to be super-multiplicative for light/moderate smokers, with a rapid increase in excess risk with smoking intensity up to about 10 cigarettes per day, but additive or sub-additive for heavy smokers smoking a pack or more per day, with little indication of any radiation-associated excess risk. The gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy of lung cancer (at age 70 after radiation exposure at 30) was estimated as 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.31–1.00) for nonsmokers with a female : male ratio of 3.1. About one-third of the lung cancer cases in this cohort were estimated to be attributable to smoking while about 7% were associated with radiation. The joint effect of smoking and radiation on lung cancer in the LSS is dependent on smoking intensity and is best described by the generalized interaction model rather than a simple additive or multiplicative model.
We studied cancer mortality in a cohort of 5,573 women with scoliosis and other spine disorders who were diagnosed between 1912 and 1965 and were exposed to frequent diagnostic X-ray procedures. Patients were identified from medical records in 14 orthopedic medical centers in the United States and followed for vital status and address through December 31, 2004, using publicly available regional, state and nationwide databases. Causes of death were obtained from death certificates or through linkage with the National Death Index (NDI). Statistical analyses included standardized mortality ratios (SMR = observed/expected) based on death rates for U.S. females and internal comparisons using Cox regression models with attained age as the time scale. Diagnostic radiation exposure was estimated from radiology files for over 137,000 procedures; estimated average cumulative radiation doses to the breast, lung, thyroid and bone marrow were 10.9, 4.1, 7.4 and 1.0 cGy, respectively. After a median follow-up period of 47 years, 1527 women died, including 355 from cancer. Cancer mortality was 8% higher than expected (95% CI = 0.97–1.20). Mortality from breast cancer was significantly elevated (SMR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.38–2.02), whereas death rates from several other cancers were below expectation, in particular lung (SMR = 0.77), cervical (SMR = 0.31), and liver (SMR = 0.17). The excess relative risk (ERR) for breast cancer mortality increased significantly with 10-year lagged radiation dose to the breast (ERR/Gy = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.0–9.3).
An electromagnetic analysis of a human head with EEG electrodes and leads exposed to RF-field sources was performed by means of Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations on a 1-mm3 MRI-based human head model. RF-field source models included a half-wave dipole, a patch antenna, and a realistic CAD-based mobile phone at 915 MHz and 1748 MHz. EEG electrodes/leads models included two configurations of EEG leads, both a standard 10–20 montage with 19 electrodes and a 32-electrode cap, and metallic and high resistive leads. Whole-head and peak 10-g average SAR showed less than 20% changes with and without leads. Peak 1-g and 10-g average SARs were below the ICNIRP and IEEE guideline limits. Conversely, a comprehensive volumetric assessment of changes in the RF field with and without metallic EEG leads showed an increase of two orders of magnitude in single-voxel power absorption in the epidermis and a 40-fold increase in the brain during exposure to the 915 MHz mobile phone. Results varied with the geometry and conductivity of EEG electrodes/leads. This enhancement confirms the validity of the question whether any observed effects in studies involving EEG recordings during RF-field exposure are directly related to the RF fields generated by the source or indirectly to the RF-field-induced currents due to the presence of conductive EEG leads.
The 1-carbamoyl-2-oxo-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolidine modification of cytosine is a known base modification produced in vitro by oxidative stress. However, the presence of this modification in vivo has not been established. In this study the introduction of this base modification into dinucleoside monophosphates was accomplished using the Fenton reaction. Subsequently, the modification was produced in short isotopically labeled oligomers. Labeled tetramers bearing the lesion were used as internal standards for LC-MS/MS determinations of the base modification in the DNA of white blood cells from healthy donors. The background level of the 1-carbamoyl-2-oxo-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolidine modification of cytosine was found to be larger than the levels of the formamide and thymine glycol base modifications.
Absolute doubly differential electron emission yields were measured from thin films of amorphous solid water (ASW) after the transmission of 6 MeV protons and 19 MeV (1 MeV/nucleon) fluorine ions. The ASW films were frozen on thin (1-µm) copper foils cooled to approximately 50 K. Electrons emitted from the films were detected as a function of angle in both the forward and backward direction and as a function of the film thickness. Electron energies were determined by measuring the ejected electron time of flight, a technique that optimizes the accuracy of measuring low-energy electron yields, where the effects of molecular environment on electron transport are expected to be most evident. Relative electron emission yields were normalized to an absolute scale by comparison of the integrated total yields for proton-induced electron emission from the copper substrate to values published previously. The absolute doubly differential yields from ASW are presented along with integrated values, providing single differential and total electron emission yields. These data may provide benchmark tests of Monte Carlo track structure codes commonly used for assessing the effects of radiation quality on biological effectiveness.
Serotonin has been shown to be involved in the production of bystander signals by irradiated cells. In this study we examined the levels of serotonin in 10 different batches of commercially available fetal calf serum and correlated the serotonin levels with the toxicity of medium harvested from irradiated cells (ICCM) using a standard medium transfer colony-forming assay. The serotonin levels in the serum varied widely between batches, and the levels correlated directly with the toxicity of the harvested ICCM. Three serum samples had levels of serotonin below 25 ng/ml, and these did not show medium transfer bystander effects. Exposure of serum samples to normal daylight reduced serotonin levels significantly. We suggest that serum batch variability may underlie much of the observed interlaboratory variation in the ability to produce bystander effects and further suggest that serum batches should be protected from light and prescreened for their ability to produce a bystander effect using a positive control cell line.