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4 April 2014 Development of a New Minipig Model to Study Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome and its Application in Clinical Research
Sehwan Shim, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Sungho Jin, Jin Kim, Seung-Sook Lee, Ho Yoon Bang, Byung Suk Jeon, Sunhoo Park
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Abstract

Because of insufficient clinical data regarding acute radiation damage after single high-dose radiation exposure, acute radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome remains difficult to treat. The goal of this study was to establish an appropriate and efficient minipig model to study high-dose radiation-induced GI syndrome after radiation exposure. For endoscopic access to the ileum, ileocutaneous anastomosis was performed 3 weeks before irradiation in six male Göttingen minipigs. Minipigs were locally irradiated at the abdominal area using a gamma source as follows: 1,000 cGy (n = 3) and 1,500 cGy (n = 3). Endoscopic evaluation for the terminal ileum was periodically performed via the ileocutaneous anastomosis tract. Pieces of tissue were serially taken for histological examination. The irradiated intestine presented characteristic morphological changes over time. The most obvious changes in the ileum were mucosal atrophy and telangiectasia from day 1 to day 17 after abdominal irradiation. Microscopic findings were characterized as architectural disorganization, loss of villi and chronic active inflammation. Increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was closely correlated with severity of tissue damage and inflammation. Particularly, the plasma citrulline level (PCL), a potential marker for radiation-induced intestinal damage, was significantly decreased the day after irradiation and recovered when irradiated mucosa was normalized. Our results also showed that PCL changes were positively correlated with microscopic changes and the endoscopic score in radiation-induced mucosal damage. In conclusion, the ileocutaneous anastomosis model using the minipig mimics human GI syndrome and allows the study of sequential changes in the ileum, the main target tissue of abdominal irradiation. In addition, PCL could be a simple biomarker for radiation-induced intestinal damage.

Sehwan Shim, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Sungho Jin, Jin Kim, Seung-Sook Lee, Ho Yoon Bang, Byung Suk Jeon, and Sunhoo Park "Development of a New Minipig Model to Study Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome and its Application in Clinical Research," Radiation Research 181(4), 387-395, (4 April 2014). https://doi.org/10.1667/RR13207.1
Received: 28 September 2012; Accepted: 1 December 2013; Published: 4 April 2014
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