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29 June 2015 Subject-Based versus Population-Based Care after Radiation Exposure
Jiang-Zhou Yu, Matt Lindeblad, Alex Lyubimov, Flavia Neri, Brett Smith, Erzsebet Szilagyi, Lisa Halliday, Tom MacVittie, Joy Nanda, Amelia Bartholomew
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Abstract

In a mass casualty radiation event situation, individualized therapy may overwhelm available resources and feasibility issues suggest a need for the development of population-based strategies. To investigate the efficacy of a population-based strategy, Chinese macaques (n = 46) underwent total-body irradiation and received preemptive antibiotics, IV hydration on predetermined postirradiation days and were then compared to macaques (n = 48) that received subject-based care in which blood transfusions, IV hydration, nutritional supplementation and antibiotic supportive measures were provided. Estimated radiation doses for LD30/60, LD50/60 and LD70/60 of animals with subject-based care: 6.83 Gy (6.21, 7.59), 7.44 Gy (6.99, 7.88) and 8.05 Gy (7.46, 8.64), respectively, and for population-based care: 5.61 Gy (5.28, 6.17), 6.62 Gy (6.13, 7.18) and 7.63 Gy (7.21, 8.20), respectively. Analysis of four time periods, 0–9, 10–15, 16–25 and 26–60 days postirradiation, identified significant mortality differences during the period of 10–15 days. A subset analysis of higher radiation doses (6.75–7.20 Gy, n = 32) indicated hydration, nutrition and septic status were not significantly different between treatments. Whole blood transfusion treatment, administered only in subject-supportive care, was associated with significantly higher platelet and absolute neutrophil counts. Median platelet counts greater than 5,670 cells/μl and absolute neutrophil counts greater than 26 cells/μl during this period correlated with survival. We observed that the population-based treatment increased the LD50/60 compared to nontreatment (6.62 Gy vs. 4.92 Gy) and may be further optimized during days 10–15, where strategic blood transfusions or other strategies to achieve increases in neutrophil and platelet counts may further increase survival rates in subjects exposed to high doses of radiation.

Jiang-Zhou Yu, Matt Lindeblad, Alex Lyubimov, Flavia Neri, Brett Smith, Erzsebet Szilagyi, Lisa Halliday, Tom MacVittie, Joy Nanda, and Amelia Bartholomew "Subject-Based versus Population-Based Care after Radiation Exposure," Radiation Research 184(1), 46-55, (29 June 2015). https://doi.org/10.1667/RR13918.1
Received: 21 September 2014; Accepted: 1 April 2015; Published: 29 June 2015
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