Enediynes are a highly cytotoxic class of compounds. However, metallation of these compounds may modulate their activation, and thus their cytotoxicity. We previously demonstrated that cytotoxicity of two different metalloenediynes, including (Z)-N,N′-bis[1-pyridyl-2-yl-meth-(E)-ylidene]octa-4-ene-2,6-diyne-1,8-diamine] (PyED), is potentiated when the compounds are administered to HeLa cells during hyperthermia treatment at concentrations that are minimally or not cytotoxic at 37°C. In this study, we further characterized the concentration, time and temperature dependence of cytotoxicity of PyED on human U-1 melanoma cells. We also investigated the potential mechanisms by which PyED cytotoxicity is enhanced during hyperthermia treatment. Cell killing with PyED was dependent on concentration, temperature during treatment and time of exposure. Potentiation of cytotoxicity was observed when cells were treated with PyED at temperatures ≥39.5°C, and enhancement of cell killing increased with temperature and with increasing time at a given temperature. All cells treated with PyED were shown to have DNA damage, but substantially more damage was observed in cells treated with PyED during heating. DNA repair was also inhibited in cells treated with the drug during hyperthermia. Thus, potentiation of PyED cytotoxicity by hyperthermia may be due to enhancement of drug-induced DNA lesions, and/or the inhibition of repair of sublethal DNA damage. While the selective thermal activation of PyED supports the potential clinical utility of metalloenediynes as cancer thermochemotherapeutic agents, therapeutic gain could be optimized by identifying compounds that produce minimal toxicity at 37°C but which become activated and show enhancement of cytotoxicity within a tumor subjected to localized hyperthermic or thermal ablative treatment, or which might act as bifunctional agents. We thus also describe the development and initial characterization of a novel cofactor complex of PyED, platinated PyED (Pt-PyED). Pt-PyED binds to DNA-like cisplatin, and much like PyED, cytotoxicity is greatly enhanced after treatment with the drug at elevated temperatures. However, in contrast to PyED, Pt-PyED is only minimally cytotoxic at 37°C, at concentrations at which cytotoxicity is enhanced by hyperthermia. Further development of cisplatin-based enediynes may result in compounds which, when activated, will possess multiple DNA binding modalities similar to cisplatin, but produce less side effects in tissues at normothermic temperatures.
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Vol. 190 • No. 2