Radiation-induced cancer is an ongoing and significant problem, with sources that include clinics worldwide in which 3.1 billion radiology exams are performed each year, as well as a variety of other scenarios such as space travel and nuclear cleanup. These radiation exposures are typically anticipated, and the exposure is typically well below 1 Gy. When radiation-induced (actually ROS-induced) DNA mutation is prevented, then so too are downstream radiation-induced cancers. Currently, there is no protection available against the effects of such <1 Gy radiation exposures. In this study, we address whether the new PrC-210 ROS-scavenger is effective in protecting p53-deficient (p53–/–) mice against X-ray-induced accelerated tumor mortality; this is the most sensitive radiation tumorigenesis model currently known. Six-day-old p53–/– pups received a single intraperitoneal PrC-210 dose [0.5 maximum tolerated dose (MTD)] or vehicle, and 25 min later, pups received 4.0 Gy X-ray irradiation. At 5 min postirradiation, blood was collected to quantify white blood cell c-H2AX foci. Over the next 250 days, tumor-associated deaths were recorded. Findings revealed that when administered 25 min before 4 Gy X-ray irradiation, PrC-210 reduced DNA damage (c-H2AX foci) by 40%, and in a notable coincidence, caused a 40% shift in tumor latency/incidence, and the 0.5 MTD PrC210 dose had no discernible toxicities in these p53–/– mice. Essentially, the moles of PrC-210 thiol within a single 0.5 MTD PrC-210 dose suppressed the moles of ROS generated by 40% of the 4 Gy X-ray dose administered to p53–/– pups, and in doing so, eliminated the lifetime leukemia/lymphoma risk normally residing “downstream” of that 40% of the 4 Gy dose. In conclusion: 1. PrC-210 is readily tolerated by the 6-day-old p53–/– mice, with no discernible lifetime toxicities; 2. PrC-210 does not cause the nausea, emesis or hypotension that preclude clinical use of earlier aminothiols; and 3. PrC-210 significantly increased survival after 4 Gy irradiation in the p53–/– mouse model.
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Vol. 193 • No. 1