Radiation therapy plays an important role in cancer treatment, as it is an established method used as part of the treatment plan for the majority of cancer patients. Real-time monitoring of the effects of radiation on the tumor microenvironment can contribute to the development of better treatment plans. In this study, we use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive optical fiber-based technique, to determine the effects of different doses of radiation on the tumor microenvironment, as well as to determine the sensitivity of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to low doses of radiation that are used in the treatment of certain cancers. We injected 4T1 cells into 50 Balb/c mice to generate tumor xenografts. When the tumors grew to 200 mm3, we distributed the mice into a control group or one of three radiation groups: 1, 2, or 4 Gy/fraction, and they underwent treatment for five consecutive days. We measured the tumor volume and collected diffuse reflectance spectra every day, with optical measurements being acquired both before and one h postirradiation on the five days of treatment. Based on the diffusely reflected light, we quantified vascular oxygenation, total hemoglobin content, and tissue scattering within these tumors. There was a significant increase in tumor vascular oxygenation, which was primarily due to an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin, in response to a 1 Gy/fraction of radiation, while there was a decrease in tissue scattering in response to all doses of radiation. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis were higher in irradiated groups compared to the control group. Our findings show that diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is sensitive to microenvironmental changes in tumors treated with doses of radiation as low as 1 Gy/fraction.
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14 October 2022
Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Changes in Tumor Microenvironment in Response to Different Doses of Radiation
Joel Rodriguez Troncoso,
Eric R. Siegel,