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9 March 2023 Review on the Socioecological Performance of Grassland Ecological Payment and Award Policy with the Consideration of an Alternate Approach for Nonequilibrium Ecosystems
Yan Yu, Jianzhong Yan, Ya Wu
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

As a large-scale Payment for Ecosystem Services program targeting grasslands on a global scale, the Chinese Grassland Ecological Payment and Award Policy (GEPAP) was implemented for two rounds until 2020, but its performance continues to be debated. In addition, equilibrium (E) and nonequilibrium (NE) ecosystem theory, which is believed to be an important perspective for researching grassland management, has not received enough attention. Therefore, based on E and NE ecosystem theory, this study summarizes herdsmen's attitudes and responses to the GEPAP. It then reviews and analyzes the ecological and socioeconomic effects of this policy by reviewing and organizing literature published since the policy was first implemented in 2011. It is found that 1) herdsmen neither felt clearly satisfied with nor actively responded to the GEPAP in both the E and NE systems; 2) In E grassland systems, the GEPAP has generally restored grasslands to some extent, except for the Xinjiang region. It also promoted an increase in herdsmen's total household income, changes in income structure, and reformations of livestock husbandry; 3) In NE grassland systems, the GEPAP did not significantly improve either the grassland ecological environment or local socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is advised that the GEPAP could beneficially continue, albeit with some improvements, in E systems; however, in contrast, it should be stopped and substituted with other grassland management modes such as community-based grassland management in NE systems. These findings are important for the improvement of Payment for Ecosystem Services programs both nationally and globally.

© 2022 The Society for Range Management. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yan Yu, Jianzhong Yan, and Ya Wu "Review on the Socioecological Performance of Grassland Ecological Payment and Award Policy with the Consideration of an Alternate Approach for Nonequilibrium Ecosystems," Rangeland Ecology and Management 87(1), 105-121, (9 March 2023). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rama.2022.11.008
Received: 3 February 2022; Accepted: 28 November 2022; Published: 9 March 2023
KEYWORDS
China
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium ecosystem
grassland management
Payment for ecosystem services
review
theory
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