On the Ground
Optimum forage utilization on animal-dominated landscapes can only occur when stocking rate (SR) and stocking density (SD) are considered and managed simultaneously.
Landscapes with foraging animals contain vegetation ranging from unused to over-used even under a proper SR.
The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technology has catapulted our understanding of spatial–temporal management of free-ranging livestock into a 24/7 opportunity.
Location-specific data will improve management of stocked landscapes, both ecologically and economically.
GNSS data from instrumented animals provides an opportunity to understand when and where a landscape is used to improve animal distribution.
A proper SR and management of animal distribution (i.e., SD) will facilitate adaptive management of animal dominated landscapes.