Geraldine Ramallo, Lorena Ailán-Choke
Revue suisse de Zoologie 129 (1), 59-83, (21 April 2022) https://doi.org/10.35929/RSZ.0062
KEYWORDS: Nematoda, parasite, freshwater fishes, new hosts, new geographical localities, Neotropical Region
An annotated checklist of the nematodes parasites of Argentinian freshwater fishes is presented. This review includes information for 42 taxa of parasitic nematodes from 56 species of freshwater fish hosts. Fourty nematode species have been reported as adults and two as larvae. Camallanidae was the nematode family with the highest number of taxa (12 species), followed by Cucullanidae (4 species) and Raphidascarididae (4 species and 1 at genus level). The larval nematode Contracaecum sp. was the parasite with the widest range of host species, follow by Spirocamallanus hilarii, Spirocamallanus inopinatus, and Camallanus corderoi. Of the 570 species of freshwater fishes reported in Argentina, only 65 (11.4 %) were recorded as hosts of nematodes. Most records were in Characiformes, Siluriformes and Galaxiiformes, which may reflects sampling effort, since its abundance and widely distributions across differents ichthyogeographic provinces of Argentina. Most sampling were done in Great River and Patagonian ichthyogeographic provinces. The small number of examined fish hosts and geographically biased studies may not reflect the real richness and distribution of these parasites. Other obstacles that also contributes to the lack of completeness of this checklist are the problems in the taxonomic validity of some nematode species, doubtful host identification, and poor taxonomic resolution for larval stages of nematodes. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to deposit voucher specimens, including also of the hosts in reference collection, as well as performing integrative studies to elucidate the real taxonomic identity of nematode larvae. This is the first compilation on the nematode parasites of freshwater fishes from Argentina, including three nematode taxa recorded for new host records and four from new localities. Despite this study is exhaustive, the knowledge about parasitic nematodes from Argentinian freshwater fishes is far from complete, since some hydrological basin mainly in Pampean and Andean Cuyan regions and some host families remain unexplored in terms of nematode parasite detection.