The phenomenon of layering in trees involves the production of adventitious roots by low-growing lateral branches and their subsequent reorientation from horizontal to vertical. This study provides the first documentation of layering in any natural populations of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis. Twelve layered hemlock clumps, consisting of 5 to 20 layered branch stems originating from a parent tree, were observed on the upper slopes of Wachusett Mountain in central Massachusetts. Layered hemlocks ranged from 7 to 17 m tall, and several layered branches produced second-generation layers. Harsh growing conditions, slow hemlock growth, and the open habitat associated with small-statured hardwood species and exposed bedrock allowed the hemlocks to retain their lower branches for extended periods of time. Fallen limbs and debris associated with past disturbances pinned these branches to the ground and likely set the stage for layering. The production of physiologically rejuvenated hemlock ramets through the layering process serves to extend the life-span of hemlock genets, expand their spatial dominance of the area, and promote their persistence under stressful growing conditions.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 119 • No. 977