Amphisbaena bahiana was described by Vanzolini in 1964 on the basis of a single specimen from Villa Nova municipality (now Senhor do Bonfim), Bahia state, Brazil. The holotype was obtained approximately 100 years ago, and only three additional specimens have been mentioned in the literature subsequently. We report two additional specimens of A. bahiana collected recently at Antônio Gonçalves, Bahia, Brazil near the type locality in the northern Espinhaço Range. On the basis of this new material, we provide data on morphological variation, natural history, and phylogeny. Amphisbaena bahiana was recovered as the sister species of A. uroxena, also from the Espinhaço Range.
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