We describe and illustrate the external morphology, oral disc, chondrocranium, and internal oral anatomy of Leptodactylus caatingae larvae. We analyze the internal oral anatomy using scanning electron microscopy of a larva in Gosner stage 38 and chondrocranial anatomy is reported for Gosner stage 34. The tadpole at Gosner stage 38 has a globular body shape with low tail fins and a ventral oral disc bordered by two rows of marginal papillae on most of the disc, except for the anterior labium and a medial portion of the posterior labium where papillae are simple; a wide rostral gap is present; labial tooth row formula: 2(2)/3(1). Observations on the natural history of adults and tadpoles are also reported. The external morphology of these tadpoles is compared with available descriptions for larvae of L. latinasus and other congeners that occur in sympatry with L. caatingae. Internal oral morphology and chondrocranial anatomy are discussed in relation to available data for other species in the L. fuscus species group.
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