Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus) are one of the most abundant marine mammal species in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOMx), a region where they are exposed to a variety of man-made and natural threats. In order to assess and minimize the impacts of these threats, it is important to understand how Bottlenose Dolphins live within and utilize their habitat in the GOMx. Much of what is understood regarding the biology, ecology, genetic, and life-history characteristics of Bottlenose Dolphins in the GOMx has been gathered from small-scale research projects conducted within inshore waters, and much less is understood about dolphins inhabiting coastal and offshore waters. Over thirty years ago, Shane et al. (1982) reviewed the literature on Bottlenose Dolphin research in the GOMx. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill has highlighted the environmental risks to wildlife in the GOMx and the need for an updated, comprehensive review of the current knowledge base and status of Bottlenose Dolphins. Here we summarize research conducted on Bottlenose Dolphins within US waters (inshore, coastal, and offshore) of the GOMx, building on the work presented in Shane et al. (1982) with work published since. We highlight what is currently known about Bottlenose Dolphin biology, ecology, and demographics, emphasize where knowledge is still lacking concerning Bottlenose Dolphins in this region, and summarize the major stressors faced by populations in the GOMx. We hope this review will aid researchers as they try to assess both the short- and long-term impacts from threats in the GOMx and may help direct future avenues of research to ensure effective conservation of Bottlenose Dolphins in this environmentally and economically important habitat.