Using pitfall traps on 12 sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains during 2007–2008, we collected 6552 carabid beetles representing 46 species. We collected 40 species in 14 genera at 9 spruce—fir sites and 29 species in 12 genera at 3 hardwood sites. When adjusted for sampling effort via rarefaction, spruce—fir and hardwood sites did not differ in species richness. However, there were significant differences in species composition. Based on non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) analysis, species assemblages for spruce—fir forest were distinct from those found for hardwood forests, with the 4 northern spruce—fir forest sites clustered independently from the 5 southern spruce—fir sites. Composition by genera varied by season: Pterostichus was the dominant genus in the summer and autumn, and Sphaeroderus was the dominant genus in the winter and spring. The species captured by pitfall traps in this study differed somewhat from the species found at these sites in a previous survey made by hand-collection. However, when adjusted for sample size via rarefaction, species richness, evenness, and Fisher's α did not differ between these samples made by different collection methods.
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