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27 June 2014 Three new species of the genus Notophthiracarus from New Zealand (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaridae)
Dong Liu, Zhi-Qiang Zhang
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Three New Zealand species of Notophthiracarus (Oribatida: Phthiracaridae) are described as new to science:Notophthiracarus motumuka sp. nov. from the Lady Alice Island, Hen & Chickens Islands, Notophthiracarus tamaki sp. nov. from the Tamaki Estuary Tohuna Torea, Auckland, and Notophthiracarus rimi sp. nov. from the Red Island, Mercury Islands. All holotype specimens are deposited at New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research and some paratypes are also deposited in Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Introduction

The genus Notophthiracarus Ramsay, 1966 is one of the largest genera within the family Phthiracaridae and is widespread in the regions of the world except Nearctic Region (Subías 2014, Niedbała 2002). It is mainly distinguished from others by genital setae arranged in a single row (distance between g6 and g5 longer than that between g5 and g4 or g3 and g4), two setae (an1 and an2) near the paraxial margin of ano-adanal plate, and seta d on tibiae IV short and coupled with solenidions (Niedbała 1994). According to Niedbała (2012) and data summarized by various authors, 43% known phthiracarid mites (83 species) belong to the genus Notophthiracarus in Australian Region. Notophthiracarus is also the most diverse group of phthiracarid species in New Zealand, representing 24 species (Liu & Zhang, 2013). In this paper we report three additional new species of Notophthiracarus from New Zealand.

Material and methods

Measurements and descriptions are based on specimens mounted in temporary cavity slides that were studied using a light microscope equipped with a drawing attachment. Terminology generally follows Niedbała (1992, 2000). The unit of measurement is micrometre (μm).

All holotype specimens are deposited in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, Auckland (NZAC). Paratype specimens are split between NZAC and Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (NIGA).

Descriptions of new species

Notophthiracarus motumuka sp. nov.
(Figs. 1–8)

  • Material examined: Holotype: adult (NZAC, in alcohol, 82/7), New Zealand: ND, Hen & Chickens Is. Lady Alice Island, Main Ridge above Grave Bay, from litter, 1 Jan. 1982, leg. R. Hay. Paratype: one adult (NIGA, in alcohol, 82/7), same data as holotype.

  • Etymology. Named after the type locality—the Lady Alice Island. Motu Muka is the Māori name for the Lady Alice Island, which is a large one (also known as the Big Chicken) among the Hen & Chicken Islands. It is here used as a noun in apposition.

  • Description. Measurements. Holotype: Prodorsum: length 240, width 155, height 95, setae: ss38, ro 33, in 85; notogaster: length 428, width 270, height 287; setae: c1 78, d1 70, e1 75, h1 70, ps1 63; ventral region: ad1 90, ad2 98, ad3 19, an1 45, an2 48; genito-aggenital plate 100×102, ano-adanal plate 80×175. Paratype: Prodorsum: length 250, width 160, height 97; notogaster: length 435, width 275, height 290.

    Integument. Colour yellowish. Surface of body covered with small and rounded foveoles with some distances between them.

    Prodorsum (Figs. 1–2). Median crista and posterior furrows absent; lateral carinae reachingsinus; sigillar fields distinct, dorsal field narrow, longer than lateral fields; sensilli (ss) with narrow stalk, and fusiform head, covered with small spines; interlamellar setae (in) long, erect and stout, densely covered with small spines in distal half; rostral setae (ro) rough and semi-erect, much thinner than interlamellar setae; lamellar (le) and exobothridial (ex) setae vestigial; comparative length:in>ss>ro; mutual distance of setae: in-in/ro-ro=4.

    Notogaster (Fig. 1). 15 pairs of setae (c1/c1-d1=0.78) present, similar in shape with interlamellar setae; setae h3 shortest and thinnest; setae c1 and c3 near anterior border, setae c2 much further; vestigial setae f1 positioned posterior to setae h1; three pairs of lyrifissures ia, im and ih present.

    Gnathosoma (Figs. 4–6). Subcapitulum normal (Fig. 4); setae h, m, and a simple and smooth; setae h shorter than distance between them; adoral setae typical of family; palp (Fig. 5) 4-segmented, with femur and genu fused; palpal setation: 0-2-2-7(1); supracoxal seta simple and smooth; chelicera (Fig. 6) typical of family.

    Ano-genital region (Figs. 1, 3). Genital setae (g) with formula: 5: 4; ano-adanal plates each with five pairs of rough setae (an and ad), setae ad1 and ad2 long, thick and hooked distally, setae an1 and an2 thinner but straight, setae ad3 shortest and thinnest, but distinctly longer and thicker than genital setae; comparative length: ad2>ad1>an2>an1>ad3.

    Legs (Figs. 7–8). Setal counts for leg segments (without tarsi): I: 1-4-2(2)-4(1); II: 1-3-2(1)-3(1), III: 2-2-1(1)-2(1), IV: 2-1-1-2(1); chaetotaxy of legs complete; setae d on femora I inserted at level of setae l″; setae a” on tarsi I and setae ft” on tarsi II curved distally; setae a” on tarsi II curved distally; setae s and pv′ on tarsi IV present; setae s on tarsi I and II present.

  • Remark. This new species is more close to Notophthiracarus repostus Niedbała, 1989 in sharing the following features: posterior furrows of prodorsum absent, similar shape of sensilli, interlamellar and notogastral setae, lamellar and exobothridial setae vestigial, vestigial setae f1 positioned posterior to setae h1, formula of genital setae: 5: 4, similar shape of setae ad2 and ad3, and chaetotaxy of legs complete. However, the new species can be easily distinguished from the latter species by the following eight characters (a versus b): in N. motumuka sp. nov., (1a) lateral carinae of prodorsum present; (2a) dorsal field of prodorsum not bifurcate at distal end, lateral fields longer; (3a) rostral setae relatively short (ro 33), in-in/ro-ro=4; (4a) three pairs of lyrifissures ia, im and ipspresent; (5a) h<h-h; (6a) setae ps4 situated at the level between setae ad1 and ad2; (7a) setae ad1 similar as ad2, long, thick and hooked distally; (8a) setae d of femora I not bifurcate distally; in N. repostus, (1b) lateral carinae of prodorsum absent; (2b) dorsal field of prodorsum bifurcate at distal end, , lateral fields shorter; (3b) rostral setae fairly long (ro 66), in-in/ro-ro≈1.39; (4b) two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present; (5b) h>h-h; (6b) setae ps 4 situated at the level between setae ad2 and ad3; (7b) setae ad1 thinner and much shorter than ad2, slightly hooked distally; (8b) setae d of femora I bifurcate distally.

  • FIGURES 1–8.

    Notophthiracarus motumuka sp. nov.: 1, lateral view of body (legs removed); 2, prodorsum, dorsal view; 3, left side of ventral plate; 4, subcapitulum, palpi removed; 5, palp, antiaxial view; 6, chelicera, antiaxial view; 7, femur I; 8, tibia IV. Scale bars: 1=100μm; 2–4, 6–8=50μm; 5=25μm.

    f01_189.jpg

    Notophthiracarus tamaki sp. nov.
    (Figs. 9–19)

  • Material examined: Holotype: adult (NZAC, in alcohol, 83/166), New Zealand: AK, Tamaki Estuary Tohuna Torea, from litter, 13 Oct. 1983, leg. D. Russell. Paratypes: two adults (NZAC, in alcohol, 83/166), same data as holotype; two adults (NIGA, in alcohol, 83/166), same data as holotype.

  • Etymology. Named after type locality. It is here used as a noun in apposition.

  • Description. Measurements. Holotype: Prodorsum: length 330, width 210, height 124, setae: ss50, ro 13, in 20, le 13, ex 23; notogaster: length 750, width 375, height 435; setae: c1 13, d1 15, e1 23, h1 18, ps1 15; ventral region: ad1 12, an1 11, g1 10; genito-aggenital plate 150×195, ano-adanal plate 105×200. Paratypes: Prodorsum: length 232–380, width 178–230, height 104–170; notogaster: length 510–858, width 305–440, height 370–550.

    Integument. Colour brown. Surface of notogaster with distinct polygonal sculpture, other regions covered with very small and rounded foveoles with some distances between them.

    Prodorsum (Figs. 9, 11–12). Median crista developed; posterior furrows present; lateral carinae absent; sigillar fields distinct, dorsal field narrow and bifurcate anteriorly, longer than lateral fields; sensilli (ss) short and fusiform, covered with small spines; other prodorsal setae (in, le, ro, ex) minute and smooth; comparative length: ss>ex>in>le=ro; mutual distance of setae: in-in/ro-ro≈2.4.

    Notogaster (Fig. 9–10). Anterior cowl distinct, covered posterior part of prodorsum, not reaching interlamellar setae; one dorsal, longitudinal carinae present, starting from anterior margin and ending at the insertion levels between setae d1 and e1; it widens anteriorly and gradually narrows to an thick line at insertion level of setae d1, then slightly broad posteriorly; 15 pairs of minute setae (c1<1/10c1-d1) present, similar in shape with prodorsal setae; setae c1 close to anterior border, setae c2-3 much more remote than c1; vestigial setae f1 positioned anterior to setae h1; two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present.

    Gnathosoma (Figs. 15–17). Subcapitulum normal (Fig. 15); setae h, m, and a simple and smooth; setae h more than two times longer than distance between them; adoral setae typical of family; palp (Fig. 16) 4-segmented, with femur and genu fused; palpal setation: 0-2-2-7(1); supracoxal seta simple and smooth; chelicera (Fig. 17) typical of family.

    Ano-genital region (Figs. 9, 13–14). Genital setae (g) with formula: 5: 4; ano-adanal plates each with five pairs of minute and fine setae (an and ad).

    Legs (Figs. 18–19). Setal counts for leg segments (without tarsi): I: 1-4-2(2)-4(1); II: 1-3-2(1)-3(1), III: 2-2-1(1)-2(1), IV: 2-1-1-2(1); chaetotaxy of legs complete; setae d on femora I inserted at level anterior to setae l″; setae a” on tarsi I and setae ft” on tarsi II curved distally; setae a” on tarsi II curved distally; setae s and pv′ on tarsi IV present; setae s on tarsi I and II present.

  • Remark. This new species is most similar to Notophthiracarus tripartitus Niedbała, 1989 in sharing the following features: notogaster with anterior cowl and dorsal carinae; median crista of prodorsum present; posterior furrows present; lateral carinae absent; dorsal field of prodorsum bi-furcate distally; prodorsal, notogastral, anal and adanal setae short and fine; two pairs of lyrifissures present; setae h much longer than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 5: 4; chaetotaxy of legs complete. However, the new species can be easily distinguished from the latter species by the following five characters (a versus b): in N. tamaki sp. nov., (1a) surface of notogaster with distinct polygonal sculpture; (2a) sensilli short and fusiform; (3a) anterior cowl not concave in dorsal view, and small, not reaching interlamellar setae; (4a) notogaster with one short dorsal carina, not same in width longitudinally; (5a) vestigial setae f1 positioned anterior to setae h1; in N. tripartitus, (1b) surface of notogaster foveolate; (2b) sensilli long and lanceolate; (3b) anterior cowl concave in dorsal view, and large, reaching far beyond interlamellar setae; (4b) notogaster with two long dorsal carinae, nearly same in width longitudinally; (5b) vestigial setae f1 positioned posterior to setae h1.

  • FIGURES 9–19.

    Notophthiracarus tamaki sp. nov.: 9, lateral view of body (legs removed); 10, dorsal view of notogaster; 11, prodorsum, dorsal view; 12, sensillus, dorsal view; 13, right side of genito-aggenital plate; 14, right side of genito-aggenital plate; 15, subcapitulum, palpi removed; 16, palp, antiaxial view; 17, chelicera, antiaxial view; 18, femur I; 19, tibia IV. Scale bars: 9–10=100μm; 11–19=50μm.

    f09_189.jpg

    Notophthiracarus rimi sp. nov.
    (Figs. 20–29)

  • Material examined: Holotype: adult (NZAC, in alcohol, 72/227), New Zealand: Red I. Mercury Is. CL., from litter, 24 Nov. 1972, leg. G. W. Ramsay. Paratypes: four adults (NZAC, in alcohol, 72/227), same data as holotype; three adults (NIGA, in alcohol, 72/227), same data as holotype.

  • Etymology. The specific name (rimi) is abbreviation for Red Island, Mercury Islands. It is used here as a noun in apposition.

  • Description. Measurements. Holotype: Prodorsum: length 255, width 175, height 95, setae: ss35, ro 48, in 75, le 10, ex 15; notogaster: length 504, width 320, height 310; setae: c1 80, d1 70, e175, h1 72, ps1 70, ps4 46; ventral region: ad1 50, ad2 70, ad3 15, an1 45, an2 45; genito-aggenital plate 102×150, ano-adanal plate 95×178. Paratypes: Prodorsum: length 205–225, width 150–155, height 75–80; notogaster: length 370–375, width 255–257, height 245–255.

    Integument. Colour yellowish. Surface of body covered with very small and rounded foveoles, especially dense on notogaster.

    Prodorsum (Figs. 20–22). Median crista, lateral carinae and posterior furrows absent; sigillar fields distinct, dorsal field narrow, longer than lateral fields; sensilli (ss) with narrow stalk, and rounded and rough head; interlamellar setae (in) long, erect and stout, sparsely covered with small spines in distal half; rostral setae (ro) rough and semi-erect, much thinner than interlamellar setae; lamellar (le) and exobothridial (ex) setae short and fine; comparative length: in>ro>ss>ex>le; in/le7.5; mutual distance of setae: in-in/ro-ro≈3.73.

    Notogaster (Fig. 20). 15 pairs of setae (c1/c1-d1=0.68) present, similar in shape with interlamellar setae; setae e2, h2 and h3 shortest; setae c1 and c3 near anterior border, setae c2 much further; vestigial setae f1 positioned anterior to setae h1; two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present.

    Gnathosoma (Figs. 25–27). Subcapitulum normal (Fig. 25); setae h, m, and a simple and smooth; setae h shorter than distance between them; adoral setae typical of family; palp (Fig. 26) 4-segmented, with femur and genu fused; palpal setation: 0-2-2-7(1); supracoxal seta simple and smooth; chelicera (Fig. 27) typical of family.

    Ano-genital region (Figs. 20, 23–24). Genital setae (g) with formula: 5: 4; ano-adanal plates each with five pairs of setae (an and ad), setae ad1 and ad2 long, thick, rough and slightly hooked, setae ad3 minute and fine, setae an1 and an2 thinner and straight, setae ad3 short and fine, similar in shape as genital setae; comparative length: ad2>ad1>an1=an2>ad3.

    Legs (Figs. 28–29). Setal counts for leg segments (without tarsi): I: 1-4-2(2)-4(1); II: 1-3-2(1)-3(1), III: 2-2-1(1)-2(1), IV: 2-1-1-2(1); chaetotaxy of legs complete; setae d on femora I inserted in the middle of article and slightly posterior to the level of setae l″; setae a” on tarsi I and setae ft” on tarsi II curved distally; setae a” on tarsi II curved distally; setae s and pv′ on tarsi IV present; setae son tarsi I and II present.

  • Remark. This new species is very close to Notophthiracarus claviger Niedbała, 1993 in having the following features: lateral carinae absent, similar shape of prodorsal and notogastral setae, h<h-h, setae ad3 short and fine, and chaetotaxy of legs complete. However, the new species can be easily distinguished from the latter species by the following six characters (a versus b): in N. rimi sp. nov., (1a) notogaster elongated oval in shape; (2a) sigillar fields distinct, dorsal field narrower; (3a) setae h1 inserted below level of e2, setae ps1 situated much below level of h2, and setae ps2 situated slightly below level of ps3; (4a) formula of genital setae: 5: 4; (5a) setae ad2 situated slightly posterior to the insertion level of an1; (6a) setae d on femora I inserted slightly posterior to the level of setae l″; in N. claviger, (1b) notogaster rounded in shape; (2b) sigillar fields poorly visible, dorsal field broader; (3b) setae h1 inserted slightly above level of e2, setae ps1 situated slightly above level of h2, and setae ps2 situated slightly above level of ps3; (4b) formula of genital setae: 6: 3; (5b) setae ad2 situated slightly posterior to the insertion level of an2; (6b) setae d on femora I inserted much posterior to the level of setae l″.

  • FIGURES 20–29.

    Notophthiracarus rimi sp. nov.: 20, lateral view of body (legs removed); 21, prodorsum, dorsal view; 22, sensillus, dorsal view; 23, right side of genito-aggenital plate; 24, right side of ano-adanal plate; 25, subcapitulum, palpi removed; 26, palp, antiaxial view; 27, chelicera, antiaxial view; 28, trochanter and femur I; 29, tibia IV. Scale bars: 20–21, 23–24=100μm; 25–29=50μm; 22=25μm.

    f20_189.jpg

    Acknowledgements

    We thank all the colleagues who collected specimens used in this paper. The first author is very grateful to Prof. Jun Chen (Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China) for supplying references on oribatid mites. His work was supported by the Funds for The Excellent Youth Scholars of “NEIGAE, CAS” (DLSYQ2012004), the Knowledge Innovation Programs of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KSCX2-EW-Z-8), the Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China—Fauna Sinica (31093430), the key research program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KZZD-EW-TZ-16), the China Scholarship Council, and the National Natural Science-Foundation of China (Grant No. 31101617). The second author's research on defining New Zealand mites was supported by Core funding for Crown Research Institutes from the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment's Science and Innovation Group.

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    © 2014 Systematic & Applied Acarology Society
    Dong Liu and Zhi-Qiang Zhang "Three new species of the genus Notophthiracarus from New Zealand (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaridae)," Systematic and Applied Acarology 19(2), 189-196, (27 June 2014). https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.19.2.9
    Accepted: 30 April 2014; Published: 27 June 2014
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