During a recent survey of Malagasy Garcinia, we uncovered several herbarium collections sharing the general floral morphology of G. verrucosa, the sole member of the Xanthochymus Group in Madagascar but differing in a number of leaf, flower and fruit characters. Further inspection of specimens deposited in herbaria particularly rich in Madagascar collections led us to conclude that these unassigned collections represent two new species of Malagasy Garcinia, which we describe here under the names, G. capuronii and G. lowryi. Garcinia verrucosa differs from both new species by having larger (≥ 8 vs. ≤ 5 mm long) flowers and fruits without ridges or lobes. Garcinia capuronii is easily distinguished from G. lowryi by its larger (26–41.4 vs. 1–10.5 cm long), bullate (vs. plane) leaf blades, and strongly 8-ridged (vs. shallowly (3)4-lobed) fruits. Based on IUCN criteria, the widespread G. lowryi should be considered a species of Least Concern (LC), whereas G. capuronii, a species known only from its type, is provisionally assigned to the Critically Endangered (CE) category.
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