A taxonomic revision of Carapa (Meliaceae) in Ecuador is provided with the recognition of four species, C. megistocarpa which has cauliflorous inflorescences, C. nicaraguensis previously described and currently placed as synonym of C. guianensis and two new species (C. alticola and C. longipetala). The new species are close to C. guianensis based on their 4-merous flowers borne at the end of the branches. However, C. alticola differs from C. guianensis in having larger leaflets with prominent secondary veins, seeds with rounded edges and short poorly ramified inflorescences, while C. longipetala can be distinguised from C. guianensis in having distinctly pedicellate flowers and 6-ovulate ovary loculi. The new species are described, illustrated, and a key to the four species recognized in Ecuador is provided.
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