Kuramosciadium corydalifolium, a new genus and species of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) from the Kurama Ridge (Western Tian Shan Mountains) in Uzbekistan is described and illustrated. The new taxon is not closely related to any other genus in the flora of Middle Asia or adjacent countries. The analyses of fruit morphology and anatomy and nrDNA ITS sequence data reveal a distant affinity to Ligusticum s. l. and Cnidium s. l. and their allies in the traditional family classifications. In particular, Kuramosciadium is most similar to Sphaenolobium, Paulita, and Seselopsis. The new genus differs from its morphologically closest relative, Sphaenolobium, in its monocarpic life-form, unbranched rootstock, bipinnate leaves with almost sessile segments, brownish (not light yellow) petals, distinctly unequal umbel rays, narrow mericarp commissure, and winged dorsal ribs of mericarps. Kuramosciadium corydalifolium appears to be a rare, narrowly endemic, and its natural populations need protection.
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