Vanilla labellopapillata, here described and illustrated, is a new species from the floodplain forest of Caxiuanã National Forest, situated in the northeastern Brazilian Amazon. The new species has consistent morphological features that support its inclusion in the Vanilla planifolia group. Vanilla labellopapillata is morphologically similar to V. insignis and V. odorata and diagnostic characters for separating it from the two species are given. A key to the Vanilla planifolia group is provided. Another species, V. cribbiana, recently described from Mexico and Central America is recorded for the first time in Brazil. Based on the examination of type material of Vanilla, we also propose the lectotipification of V. trigonocarpa and V. duckei.
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Vol. 38 • No. 4