Scleropodium is a moss genus of six currently recognized species with a native range including western North America, western Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, and Macaronesia. Informed by a recent molecular phylogenetic study of the genus, descriptions, illustrations, range maps, and a key are presented. Notes on morphological characters, ecology, and distribution are provided based on field observations and examination of herbarium specimens. Excluded taxa and synonyms are discussed, including earlier reports from Korea (S. brachyphyllum and S. coreense), Tasmania (S. australe), North America (S. colpophyllum), Europe (Brachythecium appleyardiae) and the Canary Islands (S. touretii var. teneriffae). A lectotype is designated for S. cespitans and a neotype is designated for S. touretii. Two new combinations, Eurhynchium brachyphyllum and Oxyrrhynchium coreense, are proposed. Scleropodium julaceum is reported for the first time from Canada and S. cespitans is reported for the first time from Mexico.