To explore the taxonomic status, phylogenetic patterns, and character evolution of various groups within Papaveraceae s. l. (Pteridophylloideae, Papaveroideae, Hypecoideae, and Fumarioideae), two data sets were created and analyzed using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and parsimony methods: 1) a Ranunculales data set for 82 genera representing all of the major families within the order using three chloroplast DNA regions (atpB, rbcL, and matK) and nuclear 26S ribosomal DNA, and 2) a Papaveraceae s. l. data set for an expanded sampling of the family (27 genera, 40 species) consisting of chloroplast sequences only. Branch support values on the resulting trees derived from the combined data for both the Ranunculales and Papaveraceae s. l. data sets were comparable among the various ranunculalean families and supported subfamilial recognition of Pteridophylloideae, Papaveroideae, Hypecoideae, and Fumarioideae. Within Papaveraceae s. l., most analyses of both data sets resolved the position of Pteridophyllum as sister to all remaining subfamilies and Hypecoum as sister to Fumarioideae; branch support for these relationships varied from excellent to weak. Within Papaveroideae and Fumarioideae, most taxonomic groups previously proposed were recovered, including a well-supported clade of South African species. Optimization of sixteen key morphological characters on the Bayesian inference tree indicated that some characters (e.g. presence of laticifers and nectaries, floral symmetry, spurred petals, and type of androecium) are highly congruent with the molecular phylogeny. Intrafamilial phylogenetic relationships and character evolution of the various taxa within Papaveraceae s. l. are further discussed.
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Vol. 40 • No. 2