We present the first large-scale phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Carex based on 996 of the 1983 accepted species (50.23%). We used a supermatrix approach using three DNA regions: ETS, ITS and matK. Every concatenated sequence was derived from a single specimen. The topology of our phylogenetic reconstruction largely agreed with previous studies. We also gained new insights into the early divergence structure of the two largest clades, core Carex and Vignea clades, challenging some previous evolutionary hypotheses about inflorescence structure. Most sections were recovered as non-monophyletic. Homoplasy of characters traditionally selected as relevant for classification, historical misunderstanding of how morphology varies across Carex, and regional rather than global views of Carex diversity seem to be the main reasons for the high levels of polyphyly and paraphyly in the current infrageneric classification.
The Global Carex Group," Systematic Botany 41(3), (26 August 2016). https://doi.org/10.1600/036364416X692497