The genus Philcoxia (Plantaginaceae) was published less than 20 yr ago, based on three species, and its circumscription has been broadened more recently with the description of two additional species. Here we report the discovery of two new species from the Brazilian Cerrado, bringing the number of currently known species of Philcoxia to seven. We describe and illustrate the new species and provide notes on their taxonomy, morphology, habitat, geographic distribution, phenology, and conservation status, along with a key to all species of the genus. Philcoxia maranhensis is characterized by the non-peltate, cordiform leaves and glandular-pubescent bracts, and is endemic to the Chapada das Mesas, southwestern Maranhão; Philcoxia courensis is characterized by a more developed underground system and is endemic to the Chapada dos Veadeiros, northern Goiás. Both species are assessed as Critically Endangered (CR).
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Vol. 42 • No. 2