A new species of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylum niziae) from west-central Brazil is presented here. Descriptions, illustrations, a map of geographic distribution, and morphological comparisons with morphologically similar species are provided. The novelty differs from its congeners by its subshrub habit 12 to 16 cm in height, firmly chartaceous to coriaceous leaves (8.8–12.7 × 4.3–7.9 cm), and single flowers produced per node along the distal portion of the main branch. A key is provided to differentiate the new species from others occurring in Parque Nacional de Brasília.
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Vol. 44 • No. 3