Xylophragma (Tribe Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae) includes seven species of lianas or scandent shrubs. The genus is characterized by leaves 1–5-foliolate with a simple tendril replacing the terminal leaflet, branched trichomes, calyx usually cuspidate, pink flowers, and ovary usually lepidote. The genus is distributed through dry forests from Mexico to Paraguay and Southern Brazil. We provide the first comprehensive taxonomic treatment for Xylophragma, including a detailed description of the genus, a key for all species, complete list of synonyms, descriptions and illustrations for all species, as well as information on the geographic distribution, habitat, phenology, conservation status, and taxonomic comments for all taxa. Overall, we analyzed more than 700 sheets deposited in 13 herbaria, including types for all accepted names and synonyms. We designate lectotypes for Arrabidaea clausseni, Arrabidaea elliptica, Arrabidaea macrophylla, Rojasiophyton tuberculatum, Saldanhaea myriantha var. pubescens, and a second step lectotype for Distictis rovirosana. Four new synonyms are proposed: A. claussenii as a synonym of X. corchoroides; S. pratensis and R. tuberculatum as synonyms of X. myrianthum; and X. unifoliolatum as a synonym of X. seemannianum.
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Vol. 45 • No. 3