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1 July 1999 Germination Rates of Tree Seeds Ingested by Coyotes and Raccoons
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The effect of ingestion by coyotes (Canis latrans) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) on seed germination was investigated for four tree species in Illinois. The germination rate of persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) seeds ingested by raccoons was significantly higher than the rate for uningested seeds. Both were significantly higher than the rate for coyote-ingested seeds. Among coyote-ingested seeds, germination rates of persimmon were significantly higher when seeds were protected by undigested fruit pulp or intact seed sheaths thus reducing the exposure of seeds to gastrointestinal enzymes. American plum (Prunus americana) seeds ingested by coyotes had a significantly lower germination rate compared to uningested seeds, whereas germination of pawpaw (Asimina triloba) seeds was similar between coyote-ingested and uningested seeds. Germination was significantly lower for hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) seeds ingested by raccoons compared to uningested seeds. Ingestion improved germination only for persimmon seeds consumed by raccoons, but tree species may realize other benefits from dispersal by coyotes and raccoons (e.g., decreased parental competition).

BRIAN L. CYPHER and ELLEN A. CYPHER "Germination Rates of Tree Seeds Ingested by Coyotes and Raccoons," The American Midland Naturalist 142(1), 71-76, (1 July 1999).[0071:GROTSI]2.0.CO;2
Accepted: 1 October 1998; Published: 1 July 1999
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