1 October 2001 Importance of a Low Talus in Location of Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia) Colonies
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After several years of disuse, bank slumping in a large (395.6 m circumference), roughly circular sand pit had raised the talus to a depth of 2.0 m, reaching to within 0.5 to 0.7 m of the overlying sod. No bank swallows (Riparia riparia) were nesting in this sand pit. Two truckloads of this readily-scooped talus were removed in 1995, creating separate stretches (each about 11 m) in which a shallow new talus (<0.5 m) left 2.0 m to 2.2 m of exposed, vertical bank. In the spring of 1996, bank swallows established colonies in each of these newly exposed stretches and nowhere else. A “roulette wheel” probability model is presented from which the probability that these low talus stretches were selected as colony sites by chance is 0.001.

ARTHUR W. GHENT "Importance of a Low Talus in Location of Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia) Colonies," The American Midland Naturalist 146(2), 447-449, (1 October 2001). https://doi.org/10.1674/0003-0031(2001)146[0447:IOALTI]2.0.CO;2
Received: 31 October 2000; Accepted: 1 June 2001; Published: 1 October 2001
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