Most old fields in the Queets Valley of Olympic National Park, USA, remain dominated by exotic herbs 60 y after abandonment although the fields are surrounded by temperate rain forest. However, areas of some fields have been invaded by Picea sitchensis, one of three dominant forest species (with Alnus rubra and Tsuga heterophylla). This provided an opportunity to examine local variation of factors (competition, facilitation, cervid herbivory, soils) that influence tree colonization within a set of old fields, an approach rare in previous studies. Picea sapling invasion of field edges was negatively correlated with percent cover of Agrostis gigantea and positively correlated with Anthoxanthum odoratum. Potential indicators of competition (sod thickness, thatch thickness, percent ground cover) were correlated with Agrostis cover. Picea edge invasion was also correlated with soil organic matter. In experiments, seedlings of Picea and Tsuga emerged as readily in Agrostis as in Anthoxanthum or Pteridium aquilinum, but suffered higher mortality in Agrostis. Experimental seedling establishment was low and required reduction of competing vegetation. In experiments with transplanted seedlings, cervid herbivory suppressed growth of Tsuga and Alnus, but not Picea. Growth of Picea seedlings was facilitated by Pteridium. Differential tree colonization of the fields resulted from: (1) differential competition by invaded cover types against seedling establishment, (2) selective herbivory on tree species of established seedlings and (3) facilitation by fern cover of seedlings of an unbrowsed species.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 151 • No. 2