Ironcolor shiner Notropis chalybaeus is generally absent from groundwater-dominated systems throughout its range; however, a relict disjunct population occurs within the spring-fed upper reaches of the San Marcos River in central Texas. We conducted monthly seine collections within the restricted 2.2 km headwater range of the species to assess food habits and reproductive life history within a unique spring-run environment. Prey items were dominated by aquatic insects including Diptera (16% by weight), Ephemeroptera (13%), and Odonata (5%), as well as terrestrial insects (9%). The population consisted of four age groups with a maximum life span of 2.5 y. Reproductive ecology showed a protracted spawning season ranging Mar.–Dec. during which multiple clutches were produced. Reproductive maturity was reached at approximately 1 y (36 mm SL), mean mature oocyte diameter was ∼0.8 mm, and number of mature oocytes per clutch ranged 46–326. Comparisons between ironcolor shiner populations in the San Marcos River and thermally dynamic Marshalls Creek of Pennsylvania revealed mature female size was larger (T38 = 10.48, P < 0.01) and mature oocyte diameter smaller (T38 = 16.87, P < 0.01) in the upper San Marcos River. Literature accounts regarding ironcolor shiner reproductive ecology suggest a latitudinal trade-off between reproductive season length and oocyte size. Our findings provide further evidence for the roles of photoperiod and water temperature in structuring the reproductive seasonality of spring-dwelling fishes, specifically the lack or delay of terminating cues in stenothermal waters. In this manner, aquifer depletion and alteration of thermal regimes threaten spring-dwelling fishes by disrupting naturally occurring reproductive cues.