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1 January 2012 It is Good to be Eaten by a Bear: Effects of Ingestion on Seed Germination
Josh Nowak, Elizabeth E. Crone
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Abstract

Fruits and their seeds are ingested by many carnivores, but few studies have quantified the effect of ingestion by carnivorous consumers on seed germination. Here, we examine effects of bear frugivory on the germination of three fruit-producing species. Specifically, we compare germination of gut-passed seeds to that of seeds mechanically-extracted from fruits and seeds that remained within fruits. For all species, germination in the mechanically-extracted and gut-passed treatments exceeded that of the whole fruit treatment. Our results suggest that for these three species, passage through the digestive tract of a bear positively influences germination by removing seeds from pulp, but that gut-passage per se does not increase germination success.

Josh Nowak and Elizabeth E. Crone "It is Good to be Eaten by a Bear: Effects of Ingestion on Seed Germination," The American Midland Naturalist 167(1), 205-209, (1 January 2012). https://doi.org/10.1674/0003-0031-167.1.205
Received: 2 November 2009; Accepted: 1 June 2011; Published: 1 January 2012
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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