Hybrid zones, where phenotypically distinct populations interbreed, should expand or contract until reaching a balance between selection and dispersal. Few studies examine multiple contacts within one species complex to compare how their extent changes over time. Black-crested and Tufted Titmice (Baeolophus atricristatus and B. bicolor) hybridize extensively within a narrow zone in Texas and southwestern Oklahoma. In Texas, hybridization has been occurring for several thousands of years, while evidence suggests the southwestern Oklahoma contact is more recent, beginning within the past century. We quantify plumage and morphology of the two species across both the younger and older hybrid zones and compare the current and historical extent of phenotypic variation in the older Texas contact with that in the younger Oklahoma contact. Variation in plumage between species is similar in the younger and older contacts, while overlap in morphological characters is broader in the older contact. Recently and historically surveyed transects in the older zone have similar cline widths, indicating selection, at least on crest and forehead plumage, has reached equilibrium with dispersal over the time periods involved (comparing both the historically surveyed data from 1955 vs. the recently surveyed data from the 2000s in Texas). In the recently surveyed younger Oklahoma contact, cline width is narrower, indicating potential for expansion if it follows the course of the older contact. This temporal complexity should make this species complex a productive system for future work, using plumage and additional traits such as song and genetics, on the relative influences of both natural and sexual selection on the evolution of reproductive isolation.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.