Translator Disclaimer
1 July 2003 FORTY-FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS
Author Affiliations +

This is the third Supplement since publication of the 7 th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2002. The Committee has continued to operate in the manner outlined in the 42 nd Supplement (AOU 2000), but will now publish Supplements annually so that changes accepted by the Committee may be publicized more quickly. Changes in this Supplement fall into the following categories: (1) one species is added to the main list because of splitting of a species previously on the list (Loxia megaplaga); (2) one species replaces another presently on the list because of splitting of an extralimital form (Picoides dorsalis); (3) two genera (Euphonia and Chlorophonia), with their 16 species in our area, are moved from the family Thraupidae and placed in the subfamily Euphoniinae in the Fringillidae; (4) three new generic names are inserted in the list because of splitting of genera previously included (Patagioenas, Megascops, and Gymnoglaux), with the consequent change in generic names of 21 species; (5) one genus is removed from the list (Nyctea) because of its merger with another on the list (Bubo), with the consequent change of the scientific name of one species; (6) two English names are changed without change in scientific name (Belcher's Gull and Rock Pigeon); (7) the distribution of one species is changed because of the merger with it of an extralimital form (Butorides striatus); (8) one species is added to part 2 of the Appendix (Oenoenas chiriquensis); and (9) changes are made in the endings of 9 species names to bring them into conformity with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (see David and Gosselin 2002). In addition, several minor changes are made to correct citations of generic names or other errors. The addition to the main list brings the number of species recognized as occurring in the Check-list area (main list) to 2,031. Literature that provides the basis for the Committee's decisions is cited at the end of the Supplement, and citations not already in the Literature Cited of the 7 th edition (with Supplements) become additions to it. An updated list of the bird species known from the AOU Check-list area may be accessed at  http://www.AOU.org/aou/birdlist.html.

A significant decision by the Committee reflected in the list of species posted on the AOU web site but not yet in the text of the Check-list is the recognition of a major grouping of birds generally known as the Galloanseres and comprising the orders Anseriformes and Galliformes. Multiple lines of evidence show that the Galloanseres forms a sister group to the rest of the presently recognized Neognathae (p. 3); for a review see Cracraft and Clark (2001). Recognition of this group is based on immunological distances (Ho et al. 1976), amino-acid sequences from conservative alpha-crystallin genes (Caspers et al. 1997), DNA-DNA hybridization (Sibley and Ahlquist 1990), mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (Mindell et al. 1997, van Tuinen et al. 2000), nuclear gene sequences (Groth and Barrowclough 1999), and morphological characters (Dzerhinsky 1995, Livezey 1997, Cracraft 1998, Cracraft and Clark 2001). We do not give formal nomenclatural recognition to this group at this time because of problems caused in the overall classification and because we anticipate that ongoing work in avian molecular genetics will result in additional changes in higher level classification. These changes will be incorporated into the next edition of the Check-list but cannot readily be incorporated into Supplements. The major present effect of recognition of the group Galloanseres is the move of the Anseriformes and Galliformes, in that sequence, from their present positions in the list of species on pp. xvii–liv to a position between the Tinamiformes and Gaviiformes. The rest of the ordinal sequence is unchanged.

A recent series of papers on genetic relationships of members of the nine-primaried oscines has shown that some species and genera long classified in established family groups actually, or probably, are more closely related to members of other family groups. It has long been recognized that the distinction between “tanagers” and “finches” is problematical; see Notes under Emberizidae in AOU 1998:591. Recent studies of mitochondrial DNA (Burns 1997, Burns et al. 2002, Klicka et al. 2000, García-Moreno et al. 2001, Lovette and Bermingham 2002, Yuri and Mindell 2002) indicate that some species normally considered to be members of the Thraupidae are actually more closely related to the Cardinalidae, Emberizidae, or Fringillidae. Other groups of species seem not to belong in the Thraupidae, but relationships with other families are not obvious. Further, some species traditionally placed in the Emberizidae or Parulidae may make these families paraphyletic or polyphyletic in respect to other families in the nine-primaried oscines. In many instances these studies complement and support earlier morphological work that questioned traditional placement but that were inconclusive. The combination of several lines of evidence often provide compelling arguments that species and genera are misplaced in the current classification, but do not provide equally compelling arguments about where they should be placed. The primary reason for this is the limited sampling of taxa either within the misplaced groups or among the potential recipient groups. Another related reason is that different studies may lead to different placement, partly because of differences in taxon sampling. These studies leave us with varying degrees of uncertainty about the relationships of groups that have been studied—not to mention those that have not yet been tested. We anticipate that additional studies, some already under way, will lead eventually to definitive answers to questions raised by past studies. Meantime, we are faced with several options. First, we can leave the present classification alone, continuing with a system we know to be flawed but that is at least familiar. Second, we can remove genera from families where genetic data show that they do not belong and place them into a large and growing group of uncertain position (incertae sedis), which admits our ignorance but results in a mere list rather than a classification. Third, we can remove genera from families where they do not belong and place them tentatively in other families on the basis of genetic evidence, which risks an unstable classification that may change when more data become available. We have chosen what we believe is a middle ground, to retain the present sequence of families and species, but to mark those species that studies have shown or suggested should be transferred to another, but still indefinite, position. In the list of species on pp. xvii-liv of AOU (1998), and on the AOU web site, we suggest using the symbol * to mark such species. When additional studies resolve the relationship of these problematical taxa, formal changes will be proposed and acted on.

The following changes to the 7 th edition (page numbers refer thereto) result from the Committee's actions:

pp. xvii–liv. In the list of bird species known from the Check-list area, change 2030 (from 43 rd Supplement, Banks et. al. 2002) to 2031. Add to the Notes: The symbol * indicates a species that is probably misplaced in the current phylogenetic listing, but for which data indicating proper placement are not yet available.

In the list, insert the following species in the proper position as indicated by the text of this Supplement:

Gymnoglaux lawrenciiBare-legged Owl.

Picoides dorsalis American Three-toed Woodpecker.

Loxia megaplaga Hispaniolan Crossbill.

Remove the following names: Otus lawrencii Cuban Screech-Owl.

Picoides tridactylus Three-toed Woodpecker.

Change the following scientific names, with no change in English names: Neocrex colombianus to Neocrex colombiana

Chlidonias hybridus to Chlidonias hybrida

Columba cayennensis to Patagioenas cayennensis

Columba speciosa to Patagioenas speciosa

Columba squamosa to Patagioenas squamosa

Columba leucocephala to Patagioenas leucocephala

Columba flavirostris to Patagioenas flavirostris

Columba inornata to Patagioenas inornata

Columba fasciata to Patagioenas fasciata

Columba caribaea to Patagioenas caribaea

Columba subvinacea to Patagioenas subvinacea

Columba nigrirostris to Patagioenas nigrirostris

Otus kennicottii to Megascops kennicottii

Otus asio to Megascops asio

Otus seductus to Megascops seductus

Otus cooperi to Megascops cooperi

Otus trichopsis to Megascops trichopsis

Otus choliba to Megascops choliba

Otus barbarus to Megascops barbarus

Otus guatemalae to Megascops guatemalae

Otus clarkii to Megascops clarkii

Otus nudipes to Megascops nudipes

Nyctea scandiaca to Bubo scandiacus

Chaetura spinicauda to Chaetura spinicaudus

Ornithion brunneicapillum to Ornithion brunneicapillus

Vireo atricapillus to Vireo atricapilla

Poecile atricapilla to Poecile atricapillus

Seiurus aurocapillus to Seiurus aurocapilla

Chrysothlypis chrysomelaena to Chrysothlypis chrysomelas

Change the following English names: Larus belcheri Belcher's Gull.

Columba livia Rock Pigeon.

Move the species in Anseriformes and Galliformes to a position immediately following those in the Tinamiformes.

Move the species from Euphonia jamaica through Chlorophonia callophrys to a position following Fringilla montifringilla, under the new heading Euphoniinae.

Change the following annotation: Gracula religiosa Hill Myna. (I)

Add the symbol * before each of the following names: Microligea palustris Green-tailed Warbler. Teretistris fernandinae Yellow-headed Warbler. Teretistris fornsi Oriente Warbler. Zeledonia coronata Wrenthrush. Icteria virens Yellow-breasted Chat. Granatellus venustus Red-breasted Chat. Granatellus sallaei Gray-throated Chat. Xenoligea montana White-winged Warbler. Coereba flaveola Bananaquit. Nesospingus speculiferus Puerto Rican Tanager. Chlorospingus ophthalmicus Common Bush-Tanager. Chlorospingus tacarcunae Tacarcuna Bush-Tanager. Chlorospingus inornatus Pirre Bush-Tanager. Chlorospingus pileatus Sooty-capped Bush-Tanager. Chlorospingus flavigularis Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager. Chlorospingus canigularis Ashy-throated Bush-Tanager. Phaenicophilus palmarum Black-crowned Palm-Tanager. Phaenicophilus poliocephalus Gray-crowned Palm-Tanager. Calyptophilus tertius Western Chat-Tanager. Calyptophilus frugivorus Eastern Chat-Tanager. Rhodinocichla rosea Rosy Thrush-Tanager. Mitrospingus cassinii Dusky-faced Tanager. Chlorothraupis carmioli Olive Tanager. Chlorothraupis olivacea Lemon-spectacled Tanager. Habia rubica Red-crowned Ant-Tanager. Habia fuscicauda Red-throated Ant-Tanager. Habia atrimaxillaris Black-cheeked Ant-Tanager. Piranga roseogularis Rose-throated Tanager. Piranga flava Hepatic Tanager. Piranga rubra Summer Tanager. Piranga olivacea Scarlet Tanager. Piranga ludoviciana Western Tanager. Piranga bidentata Flame-colored Tanager. Piranga leucoptera White-winged Tanager. Piranga erythrocephala Red-headed Tanager. Spindalis zena Western Spindalis. Spindalis nigricephala Jamaican Spindalis. Spindalis dominicensis Hispaniolan Spindalis. Spindalis portoricensis Puerto Rican Spindalis. Volatinia jacarina Blue-black Grassquit. Sporophila schistacea Slate-colored Seedeater. Sporophila americana Variable Seedeater. Sporophila torqueola White-collared Seedeater. Sporophila nigricollis Yellow-bellied Seedeater. Sporophila minuta Ruddy-breasted Seedeater. Oryzoborus nuttingi Nicaraguan Seed-Finch. Oryzoborus funereus Thick-billed Seed-Finch. Amaurospiza concolor Blue Seedeater. Melopyrrha nigra Cuban Bullfinch. Tiaris canora Cuban Grassquit. Tiaris olivacea Yellow-faced Grassquit. Tiaris bicolor Black-faced Grassquit. Loxipasser anoxanthus Yellow-shouldered Grassquit. Loxigilla portoricensis Puerto Rican Bullfinch. Loxigilla violacea Greater Antillean Bullfinch. Loxigilla noctis Lesser Antillean Bullfinch. Euneornis campestris Orangequit. Melanospiza richardsoni St. Lucia Black Finch. Pinaroloxias inornata Cocos Finch. Haplospiza rustica Slaty Finch. Acanthidops bairdii Peg-billed Finch. Diglossa baritula Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer. Diglossa plumbea Slaty Flowerpiercer. Sicalis flaveola Saffron Finch. Sicalis luteola Grassland Yellow-Finch. Emberizoides herbicola Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch. Paroaria coronata Red-crested Cardinal. (H, I) Paroaria capitata Yellow-billed Cardinal. (H, I) Calcarius mccownii McCown's Longspur. Calcarius lapponicus Lapland Longspur. Calcarius pictus Smith's Longspur. Calcarius ornatus Chestnut-collared Longspur. Plectrophenax nivialis Snow Bunting. Plectrophenax hyperboreus McKay's Bunting. Saltator albicollis Lesser Antillean Saltator. Saltator striatipectus Streaked Saltator. Saltator coerulescens Grayish Saltator. Saltator maximus Buff-throated Saltator. Saltator atriceps Black-headed Saltator. Saltator grossus Slate-colored Grosbeak.

p. 16. In the account for Pterodroma longirostris, the California record should be 53 rather than 35 miles southwest of Point Reyes.

p. 45. Butorides sundevalli of the Galapagos Islands is considered to be conspecific with B. striatus, following Payne in Mayr and Cottrell (1979) and most other sources. In the Distribution section of B. striatus, insert “(striatus Group)” after the words Resident and Wanders. To the Resident paragraph, add: “and (sundevalli Group) in the Galapagos Islands.” Change the last sentence of Notes to: Groups: B. striatus [Striated Heron] and B. sundevalli (Reichenow, 1877) [Lava Heron]. The latter Group is sometimes (e.g., Sibley and Monroe 1990) considered a distinct species. The extent of global variation in B. striatus suggests that more than one species may be involved.

p. 62. Remove the Notes section from Cygnus olor and place it at the end of the account for Cygnus buccinator. Change “the next three” to “the next two.”

p. 108. Change the citation for Planofalco, in the synonymy of Falco, to: Oberholser, 1925, Amer. Midl. Nat. 9: 601, fn. Type, by original designation, Falco mexicanus Schlegel.

p. 135. Neocrex colombianus should be N. colombiana (fide David and Gosselin 2002).

p. 187. Change the English name of Larus belcheri from Band-tailed Gull to Belcher's Gull, a name parallel to that of Olrog's Gull for the sister species L. atlanticus and used for L. belcheri by Murphy (1936). Change the last sentence of the Notes to: Also known as Band-tailed Gull.

p. 205. Chlidonias hybridus should be C. hybrida (fide David and Gosselin 2002).

p. 218. In the synonymy of the genus Columba, Ænoenas should be OEnoenas.

p. 218. Change the English name of Columba livia to Rock Pigeon, to conform to the recent name change by the British Ornithologists' Union (1992), and modify the Notes accordingly.

On the basis of studies by Johnson and Clayton (2000) and Johnson et al. (2001) of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and a review of morphological (Ridgway 1916), serological (Cumley and Irwin 1944), and behavioral (Johnston 1962) characters, we place New World pigeons formerly included in Columba in a separate genus, Patagioenas Reichenbach, 1853.

p. 218. After the account of Columba livia, insert a heading: Genus Patagioenas Reichenbach

Follow this heading with the citations for the generic names Patagioenas, Chloroenas, Lepidoenas, and Oenoenas presently listed as synonyms under Columba and remove these citations from the synonymy of Columba.

Delete the Notes under the generic synonymy of Columba and insert the following after the synonymy of Patagioenas:

Notes.—For the use of Oenoenas as a distinct genus, see Johnston (1962); for a contrary opinion, see Corbin (1968). Reichenbach (1853) simultaneously provided three new generic names for American species of pigeon, as indicated above. The name Patagioenas was used first and has priority if Chloroenas and Lepidoenas are considered synonyms of it, as here and as implied by Johnson et al. (2001).

Change the headings for the remaining species now listed in Columba as follows, and change generic names and abbreviations in Notes accordingly: Patagioenas cayennensis (Bonnaterre). Pale-vented Pigeon. Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin). Scaled Pigeon. Patagioenas squamosa (Bonnaterre). Scaly-naped Pigeon. Patagioenas leucocephala (Linnaeus). Whitecrowned Pigeon. Patagioenas flavirostris (Wagler). Red-billed Pigeon. Patagioenas inornata (Vigors). Plain Pigeon. Patagioenas fasciata (Say). Band-tailed Pigeon. Patagioenas caribaea (Jacquin). Ring-tailed Pigeon. Patagioenas subvinacea (Lawrence). Ruddy Pigeon. Patagioenas nigrirostris (Sclater). Short-billed Pigeon.

p. 254. The subgenus Megascops, recognized for New World species of Otus except O. flammeolus (Marshall and King in Amadon and Bull 1988), is elevated to full generic status on the basis of mitochondrial DNA and vocal data (König et al. 1999). Otus flammeolus is retained within Otus because of vocal similarity with some Old World species.

After Otus sunia, insert: Genus Megascops Kaup

Megascops Kaup, 1848, Isis 14:769. Type, by subsequent designation (Gray 1855), Strix asio Linnaeus.

Move the citation for Gymnasio from the synonymy of Otus (on p. 253) to the synonymy of Megascops. Add the following under the generic heading and synonymy:

Notes.—Formerly treated as a subgenus within Otus (Marshall and King in Amadon and Bull 1988), but mitochondrial DNA and vocal differences with Old World species indicate that generic status is warranted (König et al. 1999).

Change the headings for the following species now listed in Otus as follows, and change generic names and abbreviations in Notes accordingly: Megascops kennicottii (Elliot). Western Screech-Owl. Megascops asio (Linnaeus). Eastern Screech-Owl. Megascops seductus (Moore). Balsas Screech-Owl. Megascops cooperi (Ridgway). Pacific Screech-Owl. Megascops trichopsis (Wagler). Whiskered Screech-Owl. Megascops choliba (Vieillot). Tropical Screech-Owl. Megascops barbarus (Sclater and Salvin). Bearded Screech-Owl. Megascops guatemalae (Sharpe). Vermiculated Screech-Owl. Megascops clarki (Kelso and Kelso). Bare-shanked Screech-Owl. Megascops nudipes (Daudin). Puerto Rican Screech-Owl.

p. 256. In Notes under Megascops guatemalae, M. atricapillus should be M. atricapilla (fide David and Gosselin 2002).

p. 257. The monotypic genus Gymnoglaux is reinstated for Otus lawrencii on the basis of strong differences in morphology and vocal patterns, and because no justification was given for the merger of this species into Otus. Accordingly, the English name of this species is changed to Bare-legged Owl.

After Otus nudipes, insert the heading: Genus Gymnoglaux Cabanis

Move the citation for the generic name from the top of p. 254, in synonymy of Otus.

Replace the species heading with: Gymnoglaux lawrencii Sclater and Salvin. Barelegged Owl.

Retain the species account for Otus lawrencii in 7 th edition, but change Notes to: Formerly merged into Otus, following Marshall and King in Amadon and Bull (1988), as Cuban Screech-Owl, but separated on the basis of strong differences in morphology and vocal patterns. Also known as Cuban Bare-legged Owl or Cuban Screech-Owl.

p. 258. The genus Nyctea is merged into Bubo on the basis of genetic studies (Wink and Heidrich 1999). Move the heading and citation for Nyctea to the synonymy of the genus Bubo on p. 257.

Change the species heading Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus) to Bubo scandiacus (Linnaeus).

Add the following to the account of Bubo scandiacus: Notes.—Former treatment of this species in the monotypic genus Nyctea was based on distinct plumage and weak osteological differences (Ford 1967). Genetic studies, however, indicate that it is closely related to Bubo (Sibley and Ahlquist 1990) and in fact is nested within the genus (Wink and Heidrich 1999). The specific name is an adjective and changes to agree with the gender of the generic name.

p. 274. Following Cleere (2002), the citation for the genus Steatornis should be changed to: Humboldt, 1814, in Humboldt and Bonpland, Voy. Nouv. Cont., Pt. 1, 1:416. The type species remains unchanged.

p. 278. Chaetura spinicauda should be C. spinicaudus (fide David and Gosselin 2002).

p. 341. New World and Old World populations of Three-toed Woodpeckers are split on the basis of differences in mitochondrial DNA (Zink et al. 1995, 2002) and voice (Winkler and Short 1978, Short 1982). Ridgway (1914) considered New World and Old World populations to be separate species, and the merger of New World dorsalis into Old World tridactylus (e.g., AOU 1931, Peters 1948) was never explained. Replace the account for Picoides tridactylus with the following: Picoides dorsalis Baird. American Three-toed Woodpecker.

Picoides dorsalis Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin and Lawrence, Rep. Explor. and Surv. R. R. Pacific, vol. 9, pt. 2, xxviii, 97, 100. (Laramie Peak, Rocky Mountains = Albany County, Wyoming.)

Habitat.—Coniferous forest, mixed coniferous-deciduous forest, willows in riparian areas; favors areas with trees killed by fire or beetles.

Distribution.—As that listed for P. tridactylus, ending with “Nova Scotia,” deleting the clause beginning “and in Eurasia . . . .”

Notes.—Formerly considered conspecific with the Old World P. tridactylus (Linnaeus) [Eurasian Threetoed Woodpecker], but separated because of significant differences in mitochondrial DNA sequences (Zink et al. 1995, 2002) and call (Winkler and Short 1978, Short 1982).

p. 372. Add to the Notes under Scytalopus panamensis: Also known as Pale-throated Tapaculo.

p. 373. Ornithion brunneicapillum should be O. brunneicapillus (fide David and Gosselin 2002).

p. 432. Vireo atricapillus should be V. atricapilla (fide David and Gosselin 2002).

p. 463. Poecile atricapilla (as changed by AOU 2000) should be P. atricapillus (fide David and Gosselin 2002).

p. 508. In the account for Turdus iliacus, the date of the record at St. Anthony, Newfoundland, should be 1980 rather than 1950.

p. 554. Seiurus aurocapillus should be S. aurocapilla (fide David and Gosselin 2002).

p. 571. Chrysothlypis chrysomelaena should be C. chrysomelas (fide David and Gosselin 2002); remove Notes from the account.

p. 582–586, 659. Studies of mitochondrial DNA (Burns 1997, Klicka et al. 2000, Burns et al. 2002, Yuri and Mindell 2002) show some genera traditionally considered to be members of the Thraupidae are more closely related to members of other families. The genera Euphonia and Chlorophonia, always considered close to each other, are shown to fall well outside the limits of the Thraupidae and, among taxa sampled, closest to members of the Fringillidae (sensu AOU 1998). Because of incomplete sampling of species in the Fringillidae, placement of these genera within that family is uncertain. We resurrect the subfamily Euphoniinae (Cabanis 1847), previously used to separate these genera within the Thraupidae (Sclater 1886), and transfer it to the Fringillidae, where it is tentatively placed between the Fringillinae and Carduelinae.

Remove the genera Euphonia and Chlorophonia, and included species, from pages 582–586 and transfer them to a position in the Fringillidae on p. 659; see below.

p. 585. In the citation for the genus Chlorophonia, Pipra cyanea Vieillot should read Pipra cyanea Thunberg.

p. 659. After the account for Fringilla montifringilla, insert the following heading: Subfamily EUPHONIINAE: Euphonious Finches

Insert the accounts for the genera Euphonia and Chlorophonia, and included species, from pages 582–586.

p. 663. Crossbills on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles are separated as a species on the basis of vocal and morphological differences that seem not to have been adequately considered when the species was merged with Loxia leucoptera many years ago (see Benkman 1994, Smith 1997). After the account for Loxia curvirostra, insert the following: Loxia megaplaga Riley. Hispaniolan Crossbill.

Loxia megaplaga Riley, 1916, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 66, no. 15, p. 1. (El Rio, 4,000 feet, Santo Domingo [Dominican Republic].)

Habitat.—Pine forests. Distribution.— Resident on Hispaniola, in the mountains of the Dominican Republic and the Massif de La Selle of southeastern Haiti.

Notes.—Formerly considered conspecific with L. leucoptera, but separated on the basis of vocal and morphological differences (Benkman 1994, Smith 1997).

In the account for Loxia leucoptera, delete the Greater Antilles portion of the breeding distribution and the Hispaniola portion of the winter distribution. Add the following sentence to the Notes: “Formerly included populations resident on Hispaniola, now separated as L. megaplaga.”

p. 697. In the heading and account for Garrulax caerulatus, change Laughing-thrush to Laughingthrush, to agree with use elsewhere in the text.

p. 699. The following species, discussed under Columba nigrirostris in the 7 th edition, is added to Part 2 of the Appendix. Insert the following after the account for Larus nelsoni: Oenoenas chiriquensis Ridgway. Chiriqui Pigeon.

Oenoenas chiriquensis Ridgway, 1915, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 28:139. (Chiriquí, Panama; Volcán de Chiriquí suggested by Deignan, Bull. U. S. Nat'l. Mus. 221, 1961.)

This species was based on a unique type. Conover (in Hellmayr and Conover 1942) suggested that the locality was in error and that the bird was Columba purpureotincta of the Guianas. Johnston (1962) believed it to be an aberrant individual of C. subvinacea, but Wetmore (1968) declared it to be C. nigrirostris. A hybrid origin has not been ruled out. With the generic changes accepted above, the name would be Patagioenas chiriquensis.

pp. 705–730. In the list of French Names of North American Birds, insert the following species in the proper position as indicated by the text of this Supplement: Picoides dorsalis Pic à dos rayé Loxia megaplaga Bec-croisé d'Hispaniola

Delete the entry for the following name: Picoides tridactylus

Change the following scientific names, with no change in French names: Neocrex colombianus to Neocrex colombiana Chlidonias hybridus to Chlidonias hybrida Columba cayennensis to Patagioenas cayennensis Columba speciosa to Patagioenas speciosa Columba squamosa to Patagioenas squamosa Columba leucocephala to Patagioenas leucocephala Columba flavirostris to Patagioenas flavirostris Columba inornata to Patagioenas inornata Columba fasciata to Patagioenas fasciata Columba caribaea to Patagioenas caribaea Columba subvinacea to Patagioenas subvinacea Columba nigrirostris to Patagioenas nigrirostris Otus kennicottii to Megascops kennicottii Otus asio to Megascops asio Otus seductus to Megascops seductus Otus cooperi to Megascops cooperi Otus trichopsis to Megascops trichopsis Otus choliba to Megascops choliba Otus barbarus to Megascops barbarus Otus guatemalae to Megascops guatemalae Otus clarkii to Megascops clarkii Otus nudipes to Megascops nudipes Otus lawrencii to Gymnoglaux lawrencii Nyctea scandiaca to Bubo scandiacus Chaetura spinicauda to Chaetura spinicaudus Ornithion brunneicapillum to Ornithion brunneicapillus Vireo atricapillus to Vireo atricapilla Poecile atricapilla to Poecile atricapillus Seiurus aurocapillus to Seiurus aurocapilla Chrysothlypis chrysomelaena to Chrysothlypis chrysomelas

Change the French name of one entry as follows: Rhytipterna holerythra Tyran plaintif

Move the species in the Anatidae and in the Cracidae, Phasianidae, and Odontophoridae, in that sequence, to a position between the Tinamidae and Gaviidae.

Move the species from Euphonia jamaica through Chlorophonia callophrys to a position following Fringilla montifringilla.

Add the following to the list in Appendix, part 2: Oenoenas chiriquensis Pigeon du Chiriqui

Taxonomic proposals considered but not yet accepted by the committee include the transfer of the species clamator from the genus Pseudoscops to Asio, the merger of Ciccaba into Strix, and the division of Ammodramus maritimus into two (or more) species. We considered and rejected suggestions to change the English names of the Nazca Booby (Sula granti; see AOU 2000) and the prairie-chickens. Still under consideration is the proper placement of the species now considered incertae sedis between the Tyrannidae and Cotingidae, and the proper classification of genera and species of Tetraoninae. We are aware of reports in our area of several species not now on our list, but are awaiting consideration of these reports by our sister committee of the American Birding Association.

Acknowledgments

M. Gosselin serves as the Committee's authority for French names, and N. David serves as authority for classical languages, especially relative to scientific names. N. Bahr, P. Davis, A. L. Edwards, D. D. Gibson, J. Heindel, S. N. G. Howell, I. Paulson, and T. S. Schulenberg either called matters to our attention or provided helpful advice, or both.

Literature Cited

  1. D. Amadon and J. Bull . 1988. Hawks and owls of the world: A distributional and taxonomic list. Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology 3:296–357. Google Scholar
  2. American Ornithologists' Union. 1931. Checklist of North American Birds. 4th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.  Google Scholar
  3. American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.  Google Scholar
  4. American Ornithologists' Union. 2000. Fortysecond supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 117:847–858. Google Scholar
  5. R. C. Banks, C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, P. C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen JR., J. D. Rising, and D. F. Stotz . 2002. Forty–third Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Checklist of North American Birds. Auk 119:897–906. Google Scholar
  6. C. W. Benkman 1994. Comments on the ecology and status of the Hispaniolan Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera megaplaga), with recommendations for its conservation. Caribbean Journal of Science 30:250–254. Google Scholar
  7. British Ornithologists' Union. 1992. Checklist of Birds of Britain and Ireland. 6 th ed. British Ornithologists' Union, Tring, Hertsfordshire, United Kingdom.  Google Scholar
  8. K. J. Burns 1997. Molecular systematics of tanagers (Thraupidae): Evolution and biogeography of a diverse radiation of Neotropical birds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 8:334–348. Google Scholar
  9. K. J. Burns, S. J. Hackett, and N. K. Klein . 2002. Phylogenetic relationships and morphological diversity in Darwin's finches and their relatives. Evolution 56:1240–1252. Google Scholar
  10. J. Cabanis 1847. Ornithologische notizen. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 13:308–352. Google Scholar
  11. G.-J. Caspers, D. U. de Weerd, J. Wattel, and W. W. de Jong . 1997. a -crystallin sequences support a galliform/anseriform clade. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 7:185–188. Google Scholar
  12. N. Cleere 2002. Notes on the generic citation of the Oilbird Steatornis caripensis (Steatornithidae). Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 122:71–73. Google Scholar
  13. K. W. Corbin 1968. Taxonomic relationships of some Columba species. Condor 70:1–13. Google Scholar
  14. J. Cracraft 1998. The major clades of birds. Pages 339–361 in The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods. Volume 1, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds (M. J. Benton, Ed.). Clarendon Press, Oxford.  Google Scholar
  15. J. Cracraft and J. Clark . 2001. The basal clades of modern birds. Pages 143–156 in New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in honor of John H. Ostrom (J. Gauthier and L. F. Gall, Eds.). Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.  Google Scholar
  16. R. W. Cumley and M. R. Irwin . 1944. The correlation between antigenic composition and geographic range in the Old or the New World of some species of Columba. American Naturalist 78:238–256. Google Scholar
  17. N. David and M. Gosselin . 2002. Gender agreement of avian species names. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 122:14–49. Google Scholar
  18. R. Y. Dzerhinsky 1995. Evidence for common ancestry of Galliformes and Anseriformes. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 181:325–336. Google Scholar
  19. N. L. Ford 1967. A systematic study of the owls based on comparative osteology. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.  Google Scholar
  20. J. García-moreno, J. Ohlson, and J. Fjeldså . 2001. MtDNA sequences support monophyly of Hemispingus tanagers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 21:424–435. Google Scholar
  21. J. G. Groth and G. F. Barrowclough . 1999. Basal divergences in birds and the phylogenetic utility of the nuclear RAG-1 gene. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12:115–123. Google Scholar
  22. C. E. Hellmayr and B. Conover . 1942. Catalogue of Birds of the Americas. Field Museum of Natural History Publications, Zoological Series, vol. 13, part 1, no. 1.  Google Scholar
  23. C. Y.-K. Ho, E. M. Prager, A. C. Wilson, D. T. Osuga, and R. E. Feeney . 1976. Penguin evolution: Protein comparisons demonstrate phylogenetic relationship to flying aquatic birds. Journal of Molecular Evolution 8:271–282. Google Scholar
  24. K. P. Johnson and D. H. Clayton . 2000. Nuclear and mitochondrial genes contain similar phylogenetic signal for pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbiformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 14:141–151. Google Scholar
  25. K. P. Johnson, S. de Cort, K. Dinwoodey, A. C. Mateman, C. ten Cate, C. M. Lessells, and D. H. Clayton . 2001. A molecular phylogeny of the dove genera Streptopelia and Columba. Auk 118:874–887. Google Scholar
  26. R. F. Johnston 1962. The taxonomy of pigeons. Condor 64:69–74. Google Scholar
  27. J Klicka, K. P. Johnson, and S. M. Lanyon . 2000. New World nine-primaried oscine relationships: Constructing a mitochondrial DNA framework. Auk 117:321–336. Google Scholar
  28. C. König, F. Weick, and J.-H. Becking . 1999. Owls: A Guide to the Owls of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.  Google Scholar
  29. B. C. Livezey 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of basal Anseriformes, the fossil Presbyornis, and the interordinal relationships of waterfowl. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 121:361–428. Google Scholar
  30. I. J. Lovette and E. Bermingham . 2002. What is a wood-warbler? Molecular characterization of a monophyletic Parulidae. Auk 119:695–714. Google Scholar
  31. Mayr, E., and G. W. Cottrell. (Eds.) 1979. Checklist of Birds of the World, vol. 1, 2nd ed. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.  Google Scholar
  32. D. P. Mindell, M. D. Sorenson, C. J. Huddleston, H. C. Miranda JR., A. Knight, S. J. Sawchuk, and T. Yuri . 1997. Phylogenetic relationships among and within select avian orders based on mitochondrial DNA. Pages 213–247 in Avian Molecular Evolution and Systematics (D. P. Mindell, Ed.). Academic Press, San Diego.  Google Scholar
  33. R. C. Murphy 1936. Oceanic Birds of South America. 2 vols. McMillan Co., New York.  Google Scholar
  34. J. L. Peters 1948. Check-list of Birds of the World, vol. 6. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.  Google Scholar
  35. H. G. L. Reichenbach 1852. (1853). Handbuch der Speciellen Ornithologie, Die Vögel, part 3. Dresden.  Google Scholar
  36. R. Ridgway 1914. The Birds of North and Middle America. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum, no. 50, part 6.  Google Scholar
  37. R. Ridgway 1916. The Birds of North and Middle America. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum, no. 50, part 7.  Google Scholar
  38. P. L. Sclater 1886. Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Vol. XI. British Museum, London.  Google Scholar
  39. L. L. Short 1982. Woodpeckers of the World. Monograph Series no. 4, Delaware Museum of Natural History. Greenville, Delaware.  Google Scholar
  40. C. G. Sibley and J. E. Ahlquist . 1990. Phylogeny and Classification of Birds. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.  Google Scholar
  41. C. G. Sibley and B. L. Monroe JR. . 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.  Google Scholar
  42. P. W. Smith 1997. The history and taxonomic status of the Hispaniolan Crossbill Loxia megaplaga. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 117:264–271. Google Scholar
  43. M. Van tuinen, C. G. Sibley, and S. B. Hedges . 2000. The early history of modern birds inferred from DNA sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17:451–457. Google Scholar
  44. A. Wetmore 1968. The Birds of the Republic of Panamá, part 2. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 150.  Google Scholar
  45. M. Wink and Heidrich. P . 1999. Molecular evolution and systematics of the owls (Strigiformes). Pages 39–57 in Owls: A Guide to Owls of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.  Google Scholar
  46. H. Winkler and L. Short. L . 1978. A comparative analysis of acoustical signals in pied woodpeckers (Aves, Picoides). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 160:1–110. Google Scholar
  47. T. Yuri and P. Mindell. D . 2002. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fringillidae, “New World nine-primaried oscines” (Aves: Passeriformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23:229–243. Google Scholar
  48. R. M. Zink, Rohwer S, A. V. Andreev, and D. L. Dittmann . 1995. Trans-Beringia comparisons of mitochondrial DNA differentiation in birds. Condor 97:639–649. Google Scholar
  49. R. M. Zink, S. Rohwer, S. Drovetski, R. C. Blackwell-rago, and S. L. Farrell . 2002. Holarctic phylogeography and species limits of three-toed woodpeckers. Condor 104:167–170. Google Scholar

Appendices

Richard C. Banks, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, James D. Rising and Douglas F. Stotz "FORTY-FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS," The Auk 120(3), (1 July 2003). https://doi.org/10.1642/0004-8038(2003)120[0923:FSTTAO]2.0.CO;2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
9 PAGES


SHARE
ARTICLE IMPACT
Back to Top