This is the fourth Supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2003. The Committee has continued to operate in the manner outlined in the 42nd Supplement (AOU 2000) but is now publishing Supplements annually so that changes accepted by the Committee may be publicized more quickly. Changes in this Supplement fall into the following categories: (1) two species are added to the list because of splitting of species previously on the list (Branta hutchinsii, Geotrygon leucometopia); (2) five species are added to the list or are moved from the Appendix to the main list because of new distributional information (Pterodroma macroptera, Charadrius leschenaultii, Phylloscopus trochilus, Sylvia curruca, Muscicapa striata); (3) two species replace others currently on the list because of splitting from extralimital forms (Myrmotherula ignota, Motacilla tschutschensis); (4) seven English names are changed without change in the scientific name (Lesser SandPlover, Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Gray-fronted QuailDove, Gray Nightjar, Yucatan Woodpecker, Darksided Flycatcher, Gray-streaked Flycatcher); (5) two species are added to Part 1 of the Appendix (Luscinia sibilans, Monticola solitarius); and (6) spelling changes are made in the endings of 28 species names to bring them into conformity with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (see David and Gosselin 2002b). In addition, several minor changes are made to correct citations of generic names or other errors. Most changes of English names are for Old World species that are vagrant or accidental in our area and for which the names we have been using differ from English names generally used in regional works covering those species' normal ranges (e.g., Brazil 1991, Inskipp et al. 1996, King 1997, Kennedy et al. 2000) One change (Gray-fronted Quail-Dove) is necessitated by the splitting of a species, and the other (Yucatan Woodpecker) is made to conform to usage by most authors in North America. The changes in spelling of the specific names reflect new determination of the gender of generic names (David and Gosselin 2002b) and are to cause gender agreement of specific with generic names; some affect names of extralimital species mentioned only in Notes for species on our list.
The additions to the main list bring the number of species recognized as occurring in the Check-list area (main list) to 2,038. Literature that provides the basis for the Committee's decisions is cited at the end of the Supplement, and citations not already in the Literature Cited of the 7th edition (with Supplements) become additions to it. An updated list of the bird species known from the AOU Check-list area may be accessed at http://www.AOU.org/aou/birdlist.html.
pp. xvii-liv. In the list of bird species known from the Check-list area, change 2,031 (from 44th Supplement) to 2,038. In the list, insert the following species in the proper position as indicated by the text of this Supplement:
Pterodroma macroptera Great-winged Petrel. (A)
Branta hutchinsii Cackling Goose.
Charadrius leschenaultii Greater Sand-Plover. (A)
Geotrygon leucometopia White-fronted Quail-Dove.
Myrmotherula ignota Moustached Antwren.
Phylloscopus trochilus Willow Warbler. (A)
Sylvia curruca Lesser Whitethroat. (A)
Muscicapa striata Spotted Flycatcher. (A)
Motacilla tschutschensis Eastern Yellow Wagtail.
Remove the following names:
Myrmotherula brachyura Pygmy Antwren.
Motacilla flava Yellow Wagtail.
Change the following English names:
Charadrius mongolus Lesser Sand-Plover.
Eurynorhynchus pygmeus Spoon-billed Sandpiper.
Geotrygon caniceps Gray-fronted Quail-Dove.
Caprimulgus indicus Gray Nightjar.
Melanerpes pygmaeus Yucatan Woodpecker.
Muscicapa sibirica Dark-sided Flycatcher.
Muscicapa griseisticta Gray-streaked Flycatcher.
Make the following spelling changes:
Butorides striatus to Butorides striata
Leucopternis plumbea to Leucopternis plumbeus
Leucopternis semiplumbea to Leucopternis semiplumbeus
Lagopus mutus to Lagopus muta
Lagopus leucurus to Lagopus leucura
Actitis macularia to Actitis macularius
Ara severa to Ara severus
Ara ambigua to Ara ambiguus
Touit dilectissima to Touit dilectissimus
Siphonorhis americanus to Siphonorhis americana
Glaucis aenea to Glaucis aeneus
Glaucis hirsuta to Glaucis hirsutus
Lophornis brachylopha to Lophornis brachylophus
Lampornis calolaema to Lampornis calolaemus
Ceryle torquata to Ceryle torquatus
Philydor fuscipennis to Philydor fuscipenne
Philydor rufus to Philydor rufum
Machetornis rixosus to Machetornis rixosa
Conopias albovittata to Conopias albovittatus
Schiffornis turdinus to Schiffornis turdina
Procnias tricarunculata to Procnias tricarunculatus
Delichon urbica to Delichon urbicum
Saxicola torquata to Saxicola torquatus
Helmitheros vermivorus to Helmitheros vermivorum
Tiaris canora to Tiaris canorus
Tiaris olivacea to Tiaris olivaceus
Melozone biarcuatum to Melozone biarcuata
Dives atroviolacea to Dives atroviolaceus
Rearrange the sequence of species of Branta as follows:
Make the following changes in annotations to species in the list:
Add (N) after Pterodroma phaeopygia Galapagos Petrel, which was changed from Dark-rumped Petrel in the 43rd Supplement (Banks et al. 2002:898); Remove (H) from Bulweria bulwerii, now known also from North Carolina (Banks et al. 2002:898);
Add (H, A) after Milvus migrans Black Kite, which was added to the list in the 42nd Supplement (AOU 2000:849);
For Gracula religiosa, change (H, I) to (I);
Add (A) after Emberiza elegans Yellow-throated Bunting, which was added to the list in the 42nd Supplement (AOU 2000:853).
p. 13. Pterodroma macroptera is added to the list, and to the list of birds known to occur in the United States, on the basis of a documented record from California. Before the account for Pterodroma neglecta, insert:
Pterodroma macroptera (Smith). Great-winged Petrel.
Procellaria macroptera A. Smith, 1840, Illus. Zool. South Africa, Aves, pl. 52. (Cape seas.)
Pelagic waters; nests on islands in burrows, scrapes, or crevices of rocks, under vegetation.
Breeds on islands in the southern Atlantic and Indian, and southwestern Pacific, oceans on Tristan da Cunha, Gough, Prince Edward Islands, Crozet Islands, and Kerguelen Islands, islets off the south coast of western Australia, and on offshore islets and headlands of North Island, New Zealand.
Ranges at sea in southeastern Atlantic and southern Indian, and southwestern Pacific, oceans between about 25° and 50° S. Casual to southwestern Atlantic off Cape Horn.
Accidental off central California (videotaped and photographed at Cordell Bank, off Marin County, 21 July and 24 August, 1996 [NAS Field Notes 51: 114, 1997; Rottenborn and Morlan 2000]; another photographed at Monterey Bay, 18 October 1998 [North Amer. Birds 53(1): 99, cover, 1999; Rogers and Jaramillo 2002]).
Both California birds showed features consistent with P. m. gouldi, the subspecies that breeds in New Zealand.
p. 13. In the account for Pterodroma neglecta, after the citation of the Hawaiian Islands record in the second paragraph, remove “and Pennsylvania (Heintzelman 1961, now considered definite as to species identification).” Add to the Notes: Identification of a bird photographed and filmed on Hawk Mountain, Pennsylvania, 3 October 1959 (Heintzelman 1961) is no longer considered definitive after further consideration (Hess 1997).
p. 32. In the citation for Phalacrocorax penicillatus, change M. Brandt to J. F. Brandt, following Dickinson (2003).
p. 44. Throughout the account for Bubulcus ibis, change coromanda to coromandus.
p. 45. Change Butorides striatus to Butorides striata (in both heading and Notes); the generic name is feminine (fide David and Gosselin 2002b).
p. 58. In the heading and citation for Chen canagica, change the spelling of the author's name to Sewastianoff. Change the type locality of that species to: (l’Isle Canaga ou Kyktak = Kodiak Island, Alaska, [Gibson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 115: 706–707, 2002]).
pp. 59–60. Several genetic studies of geese, including recent work with mitochondrial DNA (van Wagner and Baker 1986, Shields and Wilson 1987, Quinn et al. 1991, Paxinos et al. 2002, Scribner et al. 2003) have verified previous suggestions based on differences in voice, nesting habits, habitat, and timing of migration, as well as in color and size (e.g. Brooks 1914, Aldrich 1946, Hellmayr and Conover 1948), that the forms treated as the single species Branta canadensis by all previous AOU Check-lists and most other works actually constitute at least two species, and further that each of the two species may be more closely related to another member of the genus than to each other. Thus, we divide B. canadensis by recognizing a set of smaller-bodied forms as the species B. hutchinsii, and rearrange our representatives of the genus in the sequence bernicla, leucopsis, hutchinsii, canadensis, sandvicensis. Additional analysis may result in further splitting.
Move the accounts for Branta bernicla and B. leucopsis to a position directly below the heading and citations for the genus Branta.
Under Branta leucopsis add the following:
A study of mitochondrial DNA (Paxinos et al. 2002) has shown this species to be closely related to the group of small-bodied forms previously treated as subspecies of B. canadensis and here recognized as B. hutchinsii.
Following the account for Branta leucopsis, insert the following new acount:
Branta hutchinsii (Richardson). Cackling Goose
Anser Hutchinsii Richardson, 1832, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Americana 2, p. 470. (Melville Peninsula [Canada].)
Breeds locally on the Aleutian islands (where much reduced in 20th century with remnant populations on Buldir and Chagulak, at end of century populations restored on most of Near Islands and Amchitka), Semidi Islands (off Alaska Peninsula), formerly Bering Island and Kuriles; western and northern Alaska east to northern Yukon and Mackenzie Delta, south to Bristol Bay, the Alaska Peninsula, and central Yukon; and near the Arctic coast of Northwest Territories and Nunavut from Queen Maud Gulf east to Melville Peninsula, Southampton Island, and western Baffin Island.
Winters from British Columbia south to California, east to northern Mexico and western Louisiana. Formerly wintered in Japan.
Casual or accidental in Hawaii and east to the Florida panhandle, and the Atlantic coast of the United States from Maine to South Carolina.
Formerly treated as part of B. canadensis but separated on the basis of studies listed in Notes under that species. The distribution of this small-bodied form includes that of the subspecies B. c. hutchinsii, asiatica, leucopareia, taverneri, and minima as recognized by Delacour (1956).
Under the heading and citation for Branta canadensis (Linnaeus). Canada Goose, substitute the following text:
Near water, from temperate regions to tundra; winters from tidewater to inland lakes and marshes, increasingly in urban areas with expanses of grass such as lawns and golf courses.
Breeds from central and southeastern Alaska east across northern Canada and southern Victoria Island to western Melville Peninsula, northeastern Manitoba, northern Ontario, northern Quebec, and southern Baffin Island (recently naturally established in western Greenland) south to southwestern British Columbia, northeastern California, northern Utah, south-central Wyoming, South Dakota, Kansas, northern Arkansas, western Kentucky, southern Ohio, Pennsylvania, northern Virginia, and Maryland. Breeding populations in the southern prairie states were extirpated, but many have become reestablished. Birds in eastern states south of Great Lakes and Massachusetts result from relatively recent natural southward extension of breeding range and to a great extent from introductions. Feral populations resulting from introductions may occur almost anywhere in the United States.
Winters from the southern part of the breeding range through most of United States and into northern Mexico.
Introduced and established in Great Britain, Iceland, southern Scandinavia, and New Zealand.
Accidental in Hawaii, Greater Antilles, and the Bahamas.
Formerly included populations now separated as B. hutchinsii on the basis of genetic studies of geese, including recent work with mitochondrial DNA (van Wagner and Baker 1986, Shields and Wilson 1987, Quinn et al. 1991, Paxinos et al. 2002, Scribner et al. 2003) that confirm earlier suggestions (e.g., Brooks 1914, Aldrich 1946, Hellmayr and Conover 1948) that more than a single species is involved. The distribution of this large-bodied form includes that of the subspecies B. c. canadensis, interior, maxima, moffitti, parvipes, fulva, and occidentalis as recognized by Delacour (1956).
p. 96. Change Leucopternis plumbea to Leucopternis plumbeus in both heading and Notes to agree with the masculine gender of the generic name (fide David and Gosselin 2002b). In the Notes, also change schistacea to schistaceus.
Change Leucopternis semiplumbea to Leucopternis semiplumbeus.
In the Notes for Leucopternis albicollis, change polionota to polionotus.
p. 119–120. In the account for Lagopus lagopus, change scoticus to scotica.
p. 120. Change Lagopus mutus to Lagopus muta. Change Lagopus leucurus to Lagopus leucura.
p. 123. In Notes for Numida meleagris, change galeata to galeatus and mitrata to mitratus.
p. 145. Change the English name of Charadrius mongolus from Mongolian Plover to Lesser Sand-Plover to agree with general use in modern Old World literature. Add to the account: Notes.— Formerly known as Mongolian Plover.
p. 145. Charadrius leschenaultii is added to the list (and to the list of species known to occur in the U.S.) on the basis of a documented record from California. After the account for Charadrius mongolus, insert:
Charadrius leschenaultii Lesson. Greater SandPlover.
Charadrius Leschenaultii Lesson, 1826, Dict. Sci. Nat., éd. Levrault, 42, p. 36. (Pondicherry, India.)
Breeds mainly in bare or sparsely vegetated areas, normally near water in desert and semi-desert situations. Winters near coasts on sandy beaches and mudflats.
Breeds from central Turkey and northern Jordan eastward locally through Kazakhstan to southeast of Lake Baikal in Siberia, southern Mongolia, and north-central China, and south to Afghanistan; probably also in northwestern India, where present in summer. Nested formerly in Armenia and suspected of nesting in Syria and Iran.
Winters to coasts of southern and eastern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf region, the Indian Subcontinent, southeast Asia, Taiwan, the Philippines, Micronesia, northern Melanesia, New Guinea, and Australia; also on islands in the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal, rarely or uncommonly to New Zealand, southeastern China, and southern Japan.
Migrates from interior breeding grounds to coastal wintering areas.
Casual in Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, Europe, northwestern and western Africa, and Kerguelen Islands.
Accidental in central coastal California (one photographed and measured at Bolinas Lagoon, Marin County, 29 January–8 April 2001; Abbott et al. 2001).
p. 158. Change Actitis macularia to Actitis macularius in the account for this species, and in the Notes for A. hypoleucos on p. 157.
p. 174. Change the English name of Eurynorhynchus pygmeus from Spoonbill Sandpiper to Spoon-billed Sandpiper to agree with general use in modern Old World literature. Add to the account: Notes.— Formerly known as Spoonbill Sandpiper.
p. 212. In the citation for the genus Brachyramphus, change M. Brandt to J. F. Brandt (following Dickinson 2003:155, footnote).
p. 213. In the citation for the genus Synthliboramphus, change M. Brandt to J. F. Brandt.
p. 214. In the citation for the genus Ptychoramphus, change M. Brandt to J. F. Brandt.
p. 231. We follow Garrido et al. (2002) in separating Hispaniolan and Cuban populations currently grouped as Geotrygon caniceps, on the basis of originally recognized morphological differences.
Change the English name for Geotrygon caniceps to Gray-fronted Quail-Dove. Substitute the following account for that species:
Resident in the lowlands of Cuba, to middle elevations (see Garrido and Kirkconnell 2000).
Formerly included G. leucometopia of Hispaniola, now separated on the basis of differences in mensural characters, plumage, and habitat preference (Garrido et al. 2002). Formerly known as Grayheaded Quail-Dove, a name now available for the two forms if recombined. The mention of Moustached Quail-Dove (AOU 1998) as a name for this species is in error.
Following the revised account for G. caniceps, insert the following new account:
Geotrygon leucometopia (Chapman). White-fronted Quail-Dove.
Oreopelia leucometopius [sic] Chapman, 1917, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 37: 327. (Loma Tina, Province of Azua, Dominican Republic.)
Resident on Hispaniola in the mountains of the Dominican Republic; not known from Haiti (but see Keith et al. 2003).
Formerly combined with G. caniceps, but separated on the basis of differences in mensural characters, plumage, and habitat preference (Garrido et al. 2002) mentioned in the original description. No reasons were given for treatment as conspecific with G. caniceps by Peters (1937). For the spelling of the specific name, see David and Gosselin (2002b).
p. 235. In Notes under Aratinga finschi, change leucophthalmus to leucophthalma.
p. 236. Change Ara severa to Ara severus. In text for Ara militaris, change ambigua to ambiguus.
p. 237. Change Ara ambigua to Ara ambiguus.
p. 240. Change Touit dilectissima to Touit dilectissimus. Make this change also in the Notes under T. costaricensis, above.
p. 248. In the account for Coccyzus melacoryphus, replace the last sentence of the Notes with: A specimen record with little data, obtained from a wild bird rehabilitation center in southern Texas (Weslaco), is of uncertain origin (Robbins et al. 2003).
p. 269. Change Siphonorhis americanus to Siphonorhis americana in the heading and Notes. Make this change also in the Notes under S. brewsteri, below.
p. 273. Change the English name of Caprimulgus indicus from Jungle Nightjar to Gray Nightjar to agree with general use in modern Old World literature. Change Notes to: Also known as Jungle Nightjar.
p. 280. Under Apus pacificus, change Notes to: Also known as Pacific Swift or White-rumped Swift, the latter name now generally restricted to the African species A. cafer (Lichtenstein, 1823).
p. 282. Change Glaucis aenea to Glaucis aeneus. Change Glaucis hirsuta to Glaucis hirsutus. Make these changes also in the Notes for these species.
p. 290. Change Lophornis brachylopha to Lophornis brachylophus in both heading and Notes.
p. 304. Change Lampornis calolaema to Lampornis calolaemus.
p. 305. In Notes under Lampornis castaneoventris, change L. calolaema to L. calolaemus.
p. 306. In Notes under Heliothryx barroti, change H. aurita to H. auritus.
p. 322. In the citation for the subgenus Megaceryle, change the statement of the type species from “Alcedo guttata Vigors = Ceryle guttulata Stejneger” to “Alcedo guttata Vigors = Ceryle lugubris Temminck.”
Insert the following after the citations for the subgenus Megaceryle: Notes.—The subgenus Megaceryle is often (e.g., Fry 1980, Fry and Fry 1992, Woodall 2001) considered to be a distinct genus. The gender of the generic name Ceryle is masculine, whereas the gender of Megaceryle is feminine (David and Gosselin 2002b). Adjectival species names must agree in gender with the generic name. Thus, if Megaceryle is recognized as a distinct genus, adjectival specific names must have a feminine ending (e.g., torquata) but if it is considered a subgenus of Ceryle, as herein following Peters (1945) and Fry (1978), the adjectival species names must have masculine endings (e.g., torquatus).
p. 323. Change Ceryle torquata to Ceryle torquatus.
p. 335. Change the English name of Melanerpes pygmaeus from Red-vented Woodpecker to Yucatan Woodpecker to agree with general use in other references (e.g., Sibley and Monroe 1990, Howell and Webb 1995, Winkler et al. 1995). Change the Notes to read: Formerly known as Red-vented Woodpecker. Melanerpes pygmaeus and M. rubricapillus were considered conspecific by Short (1982). They are treated as a superspecies by Sibley and Monroe (1990). See comments under M. radiolatus.
p. 351. Change Philydor fuscipennis to Philydor fuscipenne. Make that change also in the text of the account, and change erythronotus to erythronotum and erythrocercus to erythrocercum in the Distribution and Notes.
p. 352. Change Philydor rufus to Philydor rufum.
p. 364. Reanalysis of relationships of forms in the Pygmy Antwren complex (Isler and Isler 2003) has shown that the Myrmotherula ignota group in Panama and Colombia is conspecific with M. obscura rather than being closely related to M. brachyura; see the Notes under the latter in the seventh edition. Further, the name ignota Griscom, 1929 has priority over obscura Zimmer, 1932, and is the proper name of the species that occurs in the Check-list area. Therefore, replace the account for Myrmotherula brachyura with the following account for M. ignota.
Myrmotherula ignota Griscom. Moustached Antwren.
Myrmotherula brachyura ignota Griscom, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 69:167. (Jususito, eastern Panama.)
Resident in central and eastern Panama south through western Colombia to northwestern Ecuador, and east of the Andes in southwestern Colombia, northeastern Peru, and northwestern Brazil.
Isler and Isler (2003) demonstrated, on the basis of plumage and vocal characters, that the transAndean form M. ignota is distinct from M. brachyura (Hermann, 1783) [Pygmy Antwren], of which it has usually been considered a subspecies, and should be considered conspecific with M. obscura Zimmer, 1932 from upper Amazonia. This relationship was previously suggested by Hilty and Brown (1986) and Ridgely and Greenfield (2001a), who used the name Griscom's Antwren.
p. 368. In Notes of Hylophylax naevioides, change H. naevia to H. naevius.
p. 393. Acceptance of a Florida record of Contopus caribaeus adds this species to the list of those known to occur in the United States. At the end of the Distribution statement for that species, insert the following new paragraph:
Accidental in southern Florida (one photographed and videotaped near Boca Raton, Palm Beach County, 11 March-4 April 1995; [NAS Field Notes 49:242, 1995] and one seen on Key Largo, Monroe County, 16 February 2001).
Add to Notes under this species: Also known as Crescent-eyed Pewee (Raffaele et al. 1998).
p. 401. Change Machetornis rixosus to Machetornis rixosa.
p. 409. Change Conopias albovittata to Conopias albovittatus in the heading and text of the account. Also change C. parva to C. parvus in the same account.
p. 416. Change Schiffornis turdinus to Schiffornis turdina in both heading and text.
p. 423. Change Procnias tricarunculata to Procnias tricarunculatus.
p. 424. The account for Manacus aurantiacus mistakenly incorporates M. vitellinus viridiventris into that species. It is a weakly differentiated population allied with M. vitellinus (Haffer 1975). Correct the statement of Distribution by removing “[aurantiacus group]" and all mention of the viridiventris group. Delete the first sentence of Notes.
Change the Distribution of M. vitellinus to include the range of viridiventris by replacing “in northwestern Colombia” with “in western and northern Colombia.” The previous citation of northwestern Ecuador in the range of viridiventris is in error (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001b).
p. 463. Change Delichon urbica to Delichon urbicum.
p. 490. Phylloscopus trochilus is moved from the Appendix to the main list because of a welldocumented record from Alaska. It is also added to the list of species that occur in the United States. Before the account for Phylloscopus sibilatrix, insert:
Phylloscopus trochilus (Linnaeus). Willow Warbler.
Motacilla trochilus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 188. (Europa; restricted to England south of the Thames by Clancey, 1950, Brit. Birds 43:189.)
Breeds from the United Kingdom and Scandinavia across the Palearctic to the Anadyr River basin in eastern Siberia (Russia) south to northern Spain, southern France, Switzerland, northern Slovenia, northern Croatia, Hungary, Romania, central Ukraine, and northern Kazakhstan.
Winters in central and southern Africa from 11° to 12° N in western Africa to 1° to 2° N in eastern Africa; a few also to western and central Ethiopia and southeast Somalia, casually north to Europe where most recorded from the Mediterranean region, but recorded north to Great Britain.
Migrates through northern Africa, the Mediterranean region, southern Europe, the Balkans, and the Middle East. Eastern populations migrate north of the deserts of central Asia. Regular migrant on Madeira and on the Canary Islands, rarely to the Faeroes and to Iceland, and casually to the Cape Verde Islands, Bioko, Saõ Tomé, and the islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean.
Accidental in Japan and Kamchatka. Erroneously and dubiously reported from India.
Accidental in Greenland (specimen from Hold with Hope, Myggbukta, 18 September 1937 [Bird and Bird 1941]) and in western Alaska (at least one photographed at Gambell, St. Lawrence Island, 25–30 August 2002 [Lehman 2003]).
The Greenland specimen was identified as the subspecies P. t. acredula and was treated as such by AOU (1957); it has since been assigned to the nominate race, P. t. trochilus (Williamson 1976). A specimen taken at Barrow, Alaska, on 15 June 1952 and identified as this species (Pitelka 1974) proved upon reexamination to be an example of P. borealis (Roberson and Pitelka 1983).
p. 491. Sylvia curruca is added to the list (and to the list of birds known to occur in the United States) on the basis of a well-documented record from Alaska. After the account for Phylloscopus borealis, insert: Genus Sylvia Scopoli
Sylvia Scopoli, 1769, Annus I Hist. Nat., p. 154. Type, by subsequent designation (Bonaparte 1828), Motacilla atricapilla Linnaeus.
Sylvia curruca (Linnaeus). Lesser Whitethroat.
Motacilla Curruca Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 184. (Europa; restricted to Sweden by Hartert, 1909, Vögel Pal. Fauna, p. 588.)
Breeds in semi-open country; thorn bushes often favored for nests. Winters in arid sites, from thorny bushes along wadis to scrub jungle.
Breeds [curruca group] from Great Britain and Scandinavia east across the Palearctic to eastern Siberia (to about the Lena River) and south to central France, northern Italy, Greece, Turkey, northern Israel, northern Iraq, northwest Iran, northwest Kazakhstan, northwest Uzbekistan, and northern China; [minula group] from Kazakhstan and eastern Iran to western China (western Xinjiang); [althaea group] from north central Iran, central Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan and extreme northwest China south to southeast Iran, Pakistan, and northwestern India; and [margelanica group] in north central China (eastern Xinjiang to Ningxia).
Winters [curruca group] mainly from central and northeastern Africa to southeastern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, northern India, and southern Nepal; [minula group] from southern Pakistan to northwestern India and perhaps Iran; [althaea group] in hills of peninsular India and Sri Lanka; and [margelanica group] from Iran possibly to northwestern India.
Casual [curruca group] to Iceland and northwestern Africa, Madeira, and Thailand; [group unspecified] to Korea and Japan.
Accidental [group not certain] in Alaska (Gambell, St. Lawrence Island, 8–9 September 2002; Lehman 2003).
Groups: S. curruca [Lesser Whitethroat], S. minula (Hume, 1873) [Desert Whitethroat], S. althaea (Hume, 1878) [Hume's Whitethroat], and S. margelanica (Stolzmann, 1898) [Margelanic Whitethroat]. Treatments of this strongly polytypic species vary from two subspecies groups (Cramp 1992) to as many as three (King 1997) or even four allospecies (Shirihai et al. 2001). Although there are vocal differences between at least some of the groups, critical behavioral studies, especially where the groups overlap, are insufficient; further studies are needed (Shirihai et al. 2001).
p. 495. Change the English name of Muscicapa sibirica from Siberian Flycatcher to Dark-sided Flycatcher to agree with general use in modern Old World literature. Add to Notes: Formerly known as Siberian Flycatcher.
p. 495. Change the English name of Muscicapa griseisticta from Gray-spotted Flycatcher to Graystreaked Flycatcher to agree with general use in modern Old World literature. Add to account: Notes.— Formerly known as Gray-spotted Flycatcher.
p. 495. Muscicapa striata is added to the list (and to the list of birds known to occur in the United States) on the basis of a well-documented record from Alaska. After the account for Muscicapa dauurica, insert the following new account:
Muscicapa striata (Pallas). Spotted Flycatcher.
Motacilla striata Pallas, 1764, in Vroeg, Cat. Raisonné Coll. Oiseaux, Adumbr., p. 3. (Holland.)
Breeds from the United Kingdom and Scandinavia east across Siberia to about Lake Baikal and south to northwestern Africa, southern Italy, Greece, northern Turkey, central Israel, northwestern Jordan, Iran, Afghanistan, western and northern Pakistan, and extreme northwestern China (Xinjiang).
Winters in sub-Saharan Africa, from about 10° N south through the remainder of the continent, mostly south of the Equator; casual north to Egypt and to the Persian Gulf countries.
Migrates regularly through central and northern Africa and the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, western and (in fall) central Pakistan to northwestern India.
Casual to Spitsbergen, Iceland, the Faeroes, Madeira, and the Cape Verde and Guinea islands.
Accidental in Alaska (Gambell, St. Lawrence Island, 14 September 2002; Lehman 2003).
p. 498. Change Saxicola torquata to Saxicola torquatus. Make this change also in the text, and change S. maura to S. maurus.
p. 525. Several recent genetic studies (Voelker 2002, Alström et al. 2003, Pavlova et al. 2003) indicate that Motacilla flava encompasses two or more species, of which only one occurs in our area. Therefore, we separate M. tschutschensis from others in the M. flava complex. Substitute the following account for that of M. flava:
Motacilla tschutschensis Gmelin. Eastern Yellow Wagtail.
Motacilla tschutschensis Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat. 1, p. 962. (Coast of Chukotski Peninsula.)
Breeds in tundra with thickets of dwarf willow or birch; in Eurasia, also wet meadows, moorlands, edges of wetlands, and coastal scrub; in winter, cultivated fields, moist grassy fields, and mudflats. Habitat of M. tschutschensis in Old World not distinguished here from that of races of M. flava.
Breeds in North America in northern and western Alaska (south to St. Lawrence and Nunivak islands, and on the mainland to the Nushagak River) and extreme northwestern Canada (east to the Mackenzie River delta); and in the Palearctic from the Zaysan Depression, eastern Kazakhstan, central Siberia, and north-eastern Mongolia east to the Russian Far East, including northern Kamchatka.
Winters in the Old World from south-eastern Asia and the Philippines to the Greater Sundas and northern Australia. Also reported in the Andaman Islands and southern India, where status requires clarification.
Migrates regularly through coastal western Alaska and the western Aleutians, the Pribilof Islands, and in the Old World through eastern Asia from Japan to Taiwan; range of migrants elsewhere uncertain due to confusion with forms of M. flava.
Casual in central and southern coastal Alaska, central Yukon, British Columbia, western Washington, and California; sight reports (tentatively referred to this species) from Oregon, Nevada, Alabama, and Baja California (audiotaped).
Formerly treated as a race of Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 [Yellow Wagtail], but multiple independent genetic analyses show paraphyly and strong genetic differentiation between the flava group and tschutschensis, which are not sister taxa (Voelker 2002, Alström et al. 2003, Pavlova et al. 2003). These studies do not unequivocally demonstrate which, if any, other taxa should be considered conspecific with tschutschensis; taivana and macronyx together may form a third species. Pending further data, the present account includes only tschutschensis and simillima plus the following taxa recognized by some authors, plexa, angarensis, and zaissanensis; inclusion of plexa with tschutschensis is controversial, but does not affect range statement here. Sometimes called Alaska Yellow-Wagtail or Eastern Yellow-Wagtail, but given the non-monophyly of Motacilla flava sensu lato, we avoid hyphenation of the modifier “Yellow” as a group name.
p. 553. Change Helmitheros vermivorus to Helmitheros vermivorum.
p. 594. Change Tiaris canora to Tiaris canorus.
p. 595. Change Tiaris olivacea to Tiaris olivaceus.
p. 603. In the Notes under Melozone kieneri, change M. biarcuatum to M. biarcuata.
p. 604. Change Melozone biarcuatum to Melozone biarcuata in both heading and text.
p. 644. Change Dives atroviolacea to Dives atroviolaceus.
p. 696. Delete the account for Phylloscopus trochilus, moved to the main list.
p. 696. Before the account for Copsychus saularis, insert:
Luscinia sibilans (Swinhoe). Rufous-tailed Robin.
Larvivora sibilans Swinhoe, 1863, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 292. (Macao, south-eastern China.)
Identification of an individual believed to be of this Asian species photographed on Attu Island, western Aleutians, Alaska, on 4 June 2000 (North Amer. Birds 54:317, 2000), is not definitive (Gibson et al. 2003, Robbins et al. 2003).
p. 697, after the account for Saxicola rubetra, insert:
Monticola solitarius (Linnaeus). Blue Rock Thrush.
Turdus solitarius Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 170. (Oriente = Italy; see Hartert, Vögel Pal. Fauna, p. 674, 1910.)
An adult male of this Eurasian species was photographed at Goldpan Provincial Park, about 6.5 miles west of Spences Bridge, in south-central British Columbia (McDonald 1997). Photos clearly show it to be of the east Asian race, M. s. philippensis. Although the identification is not questioned, the origin has been (Robbins et al. 2003). The location is along the Trans- Canada Highway.
p. 700. Change Ara erythrocephala to Ara erythrocephalus and Ara erythrura to Ara erythrurus.
pp. 705–730. In the list of French Names of North American Birds, insert the following species in the proper position as indicated by the text of this Supplement:
Pterodroma macroptera Pétrel noir Branta hutchinsii Bernache de Hutchins Charadrius leschenaultii Pluvier de Leschenault Geotrygon leucometopia Colombe d’Hispaniola Myrmotherula ignota Myrmidon de Griscom Phylloscopus trochilus Pouillot fitis Sylvia curruca Fauvette babillarde Muscicapa striata Gobemouche gris Motacilla tschutschensis Bergeronnette de Béringie Luscinia sibilans Rossignol siffleur Monticola solitarius Monticole bleu
Remove the following names: Myrmotherula brachyura Motacilla flava
Make the following spelling changes: Butorides striatus to Butorides striata Leucopternis plumbea to Leucopternis plumbeus Leucopternis semiplumbea to Leucopternis semiplumbeus Lagopus mutus to Lagopus muta Lagopus leucurus to Lagopus leucura Actitis macularia to Actitis macularius Ara severa to Ara severus Ara ambigua to Ara ambiguus Touit dilectissima to Touit dilectissimus Siphonorhis americanus to Siphonorhis americana Glaucis aenea to Glaucis aeneus Glaucis hirsuta to Glaucis hirsutus Lophornis brachylopha to Lophornis brachylophus Lampornis calolaema to Lampornis calolaemus Ceryle torquata to Ceryle torquatus Philydor fuscipennis to Philydor fuscipenne Philydor rufus to Philydor rufum Machetornis rixosus to Machetornis rixosa Conopias albovittata to Conopias albovittatus Schiffornis turdinus to Schiffornis turdina Procnias tricarunculata to Procnias tricarunculatus Delichon urbica to Delichon urbicum Saxicola torquata to Saxicola torquatus Helmitheros vermivorus to Helmitheros vermivorum Tiaris canora to Tiaris canorus Tiaris olivacea to Tiaris olivaceus Melozone biarcuatum to Melozone biarcuata Dives atroviolacea to Dives atroviolaceus Ara erythrocephala to Ara erythrocephalus Ara erythrura to Ara erythrurus.
Rearrange the sequence of species of Branta as follows:
p. 739. The citation to a paper by David and Gosselin 2002 added by the 44th Supplement should be changed to 2002a.
Taxonomic proposals considered since 1 January 2003 but not yet accepted by the Committee include: separation of the genus Basilinna from Hylocharis; separation of the genus Polyerata from Amazilia; merger of Amazilia decora into A. amabilis; split of Caprimulgus indicus into two species; division of Aulacorhynchus prasinus into four species; split of the genus Dryobates from Picoides; separation of Hyloctistes virgatus from H. subulatus; merger of New World species of Pica into an enlarged Pica pica; merger of Catharus bicknelli with C. minimus; division of Dendroica petechia into two or more species; division of Geothlypis aequinoctialis into four species; division of Ammodramus maritimus into two or four species; division of Passerella iliaca into up to four species; and separation of Icterus fuertesi from I. spurius.
Moving Mesophoyx intermedia from the appendix to the main list on the basis of a report from Midway Island (North Amer. Birds 53:441–443, 1999) was rejected because published and archival photographs probably pertain to the Asian/Australasian subspecies of the Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis coromandus). The transfer of Tadorna ferruginea to the main list from the Appendix was rejected because of uncertainty that the birds seen on Southampton Island, Nunavut (Allard et al. 2001) were natural vagrants rather than escapes. We are aware of other distributional reports that might add species to our list but have not yet had the opportunity to evaluate them fully.
We considered but rejected suggestions to change the English name of Riparia riparia from Bank Swallow to Sand Martin, and to change English names of species of Myioborus from Redstart to Whitestart.
Michel Gosselin serves as the Committee's authority for French names, and Normand David serves as the authority for classical languages, especially relative to scientific names. P. Alström, M. J. Braun, D. V. Derksen, K. L. Garrett, D. D. Gibson, J. M. Pearce, H. D. Pratt, S. L. Talbot, and K. T. Scribner provided important suggestions and assistance.
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