We studied the songs of Wedge-tailed Sabrewings (Campylopterus curvipennis) in six localities from central Veracruz, Mexico, to document structure and variation within and between singing groups in the same geographic region. Wedgetailed Sabrewing songs were acoustically, structurally, and behaviorally complex, rivaling those of other taxa with complex signals. Songs of individual birds were composed of >45 well-differentiated and structurally complex syllables. We found 239 different syllable types across eight recorded singing groups of Wedge-tailed Sabrewings (∼20 syllable types per singing group), with the greatest versatility recorded in hummingbirds to date. The acoustic variation (15 variables) was summarized in three principal components (58% of acoustic variation), in which intragroup variability accounted for most of the observed variation. We found significant differences between and within groups in terms of syllable sharing (Jaccard’s similarity coefficient). Individuals generally shared >50% of syllable types within groups, whereas syllable sharing was <10% between individuals from different groups. The same microgeographic pattern was supported in a UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean) analysis where individual songs from each singing group clustered separately. However, songs recorded at the same location differed between seasons, which suggests that this species does not exhibit geographically distinct dialects that are consistent across time. The interplay among this species’ social system, distribution of its floral resources, and microgeographic and temporal variation of its song requires further research.
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Vol. 122 • No. 2