Few studies have investigated the vocal communication of ratites, and none has investigated the spectral and temporal structure of vocalizations of Apteryx, the only extant ratite genus in New Zealand. We describe the long-range vocalization (whistle call) and vocal behavior of male and female North Island Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). Spontaneous calling by seven pairs was recorded in the field over a one-year period. Call notes produced by males were tonal in nature; the fundamental frequency was ~1.5 kHz, with overtones reaching up to ~13.0 kHz. Call notes produced by females contained a series of tightly packed, poorly defined harmonics and consisted of a fundamental frequency of ~0.1 kHz, with overtones reaching ~7.0 kHz. The amplitude within notes of females was concentrated into two prominent formants. Some individuals of pairs exhibited duetting behavior that resulted in alteration of the inter-note interval after the onset of the call of their mate. Our findings draw attention to the uniqueness of the North Island Brown Kiwi's vocalizations, and we uncovered some unexpected structural features that call for further investigation.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.